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The Heritage Lodge 

No. 730, A.F.& A.M., G.R.C. 

Instituted: September 21, 1977 
Constituted: September 23, 1977 


Vol. 11, 1987 - 1988 

Worshipful Master 

R.W.Bro. Edsel C. Steen 

Editor : 

R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos 

10 Mayfield Avenue, 

Guelph, Ont. NIG 2L8 


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Worshipful Master, 1987- 1988 
Charter Member The Heritage Lodge No. 730 

Edsel Steen was bom in Detroit, Michigan of 
Canadian parentage and attended schools in Chatham 
and Wallaceburg. He took Post Graduate Courses in 
Industrial Cost Accounting and was employed by 
Dominion Glass Co. Ltd., from 1940 to 1983; for the 
last 18 years before his retirement from the Com- 
pany, he was Plant Controller and a variety of tides. 

Edsel married Marion Mummery and they have 
two sons; Dr. Douglas Steen, a dentist in Wallaceburg 
and Alan now working in Toronto. 

He has been very active in community life in 
Wallaceburg including: Former Member of the Town 
Council, Past Chairman of the Committee of Adjust- 
ment for the Town of Wallaceburg and for several 
years Director of the Wallaceburg Chamber of Com- 
merce; Past President of a number of Clubs and 
Societies including the Optimist Club, the Figure 
Skating Club, the Kent County Beekeepers Associa- 
tion, the Windsor Chapter of the American Materials 
Handling Society and Past Chairman of the Kent 
County Cost Accountant Society. He is presently 
Treasurer of the Wallaceburg Tourist Bureau and an 
Elder in Trinity United Church. 

Edsel was inidated into Pnyx Lodge No. 312 
G.R.C., Wallaceburg in 1958 and served as Worshipful 
Master in 1966. He was elected D.D.G.M. of Chatham 
District in 1974 and has been a member of the Board 
of General Purposes of Grand Lodge since 1977. He 
is a Director of the Masonic Foundation of Ontario, 
and Regional Director of the Mentorship program for 
the St. Thomas, Samia, Windsor and Chatham Dis- 
tricts. He is also Chairman of the Advisory 

Committee for the Board of General Purposes, 
Co-Chairman of Administration for the Correspon- 
dence Course, a member of the Masonic Education 
Committee and a member of the Committee on Con- 
dition of Masonry. 

He is a past T.P.G.M. of Chatham Lodge of 
Perfection, Member of Kent Chapter Rose Croix and 
a Member of Moore Sovereign Consistory. He was 
coroneted H.I.G. 33^, 1986, and is presently Grand 
Treasurer of the Scottish Rite bodies in the Valley 
of Chatham. 


Greetings as we commence the second decade of 
our development with a new style format, which we 
hope you will fmd to be a significant improvement. 

All those who have attended the Annual Elec- 
tion of Officers in September, 1987, were privileged 
to hear a most enjoyable paper presented by R.W. 
Bro. Charles E. Grimwood tided "OTTO KLOTZ"; 
Preston's most public spirited Citizen of the 19th 
Century. He was a pioneer in multi-culturism, a 
practicing horticulturist, an active politician, a 
Notary Public, the first to introduce 'free schooling' 
in Upper Canada, the founder of the Mechanics 
Institute and an outstanding Mason. It is regrettable 
that we are unable to reproduce the beautiful colored 
slides Bro. Grimwood projected to illustrate his 

The Fourth Annual Heritage Banquet was held 
in the Canada West Room at the Black Creek Pioneer 
Village on January 28, 1988. The Guest Speaker was 
M.W. Bro. Robert N. Osborne, Past Grand Master of 
the State of Michigan and presently Grand Secretary. 
He presented an informal; and humorous discussion 
"Take Time To Be A Mason". We were unable to 
obtain material for presentation in these proceedings. 

The Regular Meeting in March was held in the 
Hanover Masonic Hall with our own R.W.Bro. Robert 
T. Runciman presenting an enlightening paper titled 
"Introduction to Masonic Jurisprudence". Bro. 
Runciman emphasized the 'practical approach' and 
gave a number of examples to illustrate his personal 
views, particularly as regards 'Masonic Landmarks'. 
The paper was reviewed by two other members of 
The Heritage Lodge, R.W. Bro. Allan Leal, P.G.S.W., 
and R.W.Bro. George F.W. Inrig, P.G.R. 

On May 14, 1988, the Officers and Members of 
the Lodge journeyed north to Sault St. Marie, On- 
tario, so that our Northern Brethren could experience 
the pleasure of attending a Heritage Lodge meeting 
in their own environment, and also to listen to an 
excellent paper titled "William Charles White" pre- 
sented by R.W.Bro. John W. Auckland who gave the 
audience an insight into three interesting careers: 
Rt.Rev. William Charles White, Bishop of Honan; Dr. 
William Charles White, Professor of Chinese Studies 
and Director Far Eastern Collection, Royal Ontario 
Museum; and R.W.Bro. William Charles White, distin- 
guished Mason and Past Grand Chaplin. Three inter- 
esting reviews and comments were presented by: Miss 
Betty Kingston, representing the Library of the Far 
Eastern Collection R.O.M.; R.W.Bro. Charles A. 
Sankey and R.W.Bro. Wallace E. McLeod, both Chart- 
er Members of The Heritage Lodge. 

A new section has been added called "Letters to 
the Editor" to accommodate and recognize significant 
contributions to our Proceedings. 

With this issue we are introducing a new bind- 
ing procedure and a bolder printing style. We hope 
you will find this a satisfactory improvement. With 
the increasingly larger number of pages in recent 
publications, it became necessary to use a binding 
procedure known as 'perfect binding'. This will 
facilitate the practice of binding a limited quantity 
of extra proceedings every 5 years into a single hard 
cover book as a treasure in your personal masonic 




The Worshipful Master, Edsel C. Steen, 


Editorial Comments, 


Table of Contents, 




Otto Klotz by. 

R.W.Bro. Charles Grimwood, 


Introduction to Masonic Jurisprudence by. 

R.W.Bro. Robert T. Runciman, 


Paper Reviews by: 

R.W.Bro. H. Allan Leal, 


R.W.Bro. George F.W. Inrig, 


William Charles White by. 

R.W.Bro. John W. Auckland, 


Paper Reviews by: 

Miss Betty Kingston, 


R.W.Bro. Charles A. Sankey, 


R.W.Bro. Wallace E. McLeod, 


Letters To The Editor, 


Our Departed Brethren, 


Lodge Officers and Committees, 



The contributors to the Proceedings of this 
Lodge are alone responsible for the opinions ex- 
pressed and also for the accuracy of the statements 
made therein, and do not necessarily reflect the 
opinions or policies of The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 



R.W.Bro. Charles F. Grimwood 

Otto Klotz was bom November 25th, 1817 in 
the city of Kiel, on the Baltic Sea, in the Duchy of 
Holstein, in Germany. I want to say a brief word 
about the Duchy of Holstein. Lest there be any of us 
who, like myself until a few months ago, doesn't 
know what a Duchy is, literally it is a country or 
area owned by a Duke or Duchess, but it has come 
to describe such lands owned by royalty or any rank. 
Duchies still exist today. Robert Lacy, in an appendix 
to his book "Majesty" informs us that there are 
180,930 acres of Duchy lands in England alone, 
belonging to members of the royal family, as of 1977. 
The Duchy of Holstein was a piece of land that in- 
cluded the city of Kiel that had been ceded to the 
German confederation but owned by the King of 
Denmark. This arrangement, fraught with the poten- 
tial for controversy had existed, in the words of 
Encyclopedia Britannica, "since time immemorial" 
finally came to a crisis and conclusion with the 
extinction of the male line of the reigning house of 
Denmark by the death of King Frederick VII in 1863, 
when Otto Klotz was aged 46 and long gone from 
the scene. There was little in Bro.Klotz' life that 
was controversial but he grew up in a place steeped 
in controversy. 

Bro. Klotz' father, Jacob Klotz, was the junior 
member of the mercantile firm of "Klotz and Son" 
which was active in the grain trade. 

*Paper presented at the Regular Meeting of the 

Heritage Lodge held in the Preston-Hespeler Masonic 

Temple, Cambridge, Wednesday evening, September 
16, 1987. 

Otto attended primary school in Kiel and was 
the apprenticed to a wine merchant in Lubeck, 40 
miles to the south, and it was here he had the 
opportunity to become fluent in both the English and 
French languages. His mother tongue was, of course, 

In the Spring of 1837 his uncle, Christian Klotz, 
sent a cargo of wheat to America and 19 year old 
Otto was permitted to go along with it. 

The cargo ship was a sailing vessel, a Brigan- 
tine, called "The Fredericke". On the 27th of March, 
1837 the anchor was weighed at Kiel and 79 long 
days later on June 14th young Otto found himself 
riding at anchor on the East River in New York. 

Some sources say the wheat was sent to help 
alleviate a shortage of grain in America. Another 
source says "it was sent on speculation, but on 
arrival the wheat was heated and the market over- 
stocked, hence the speculation was a failure." 

Although Klotz seems to have had no definite 
intention of remaining in America he did try un- 
successfully to find employment in New York. By 
chance he met a German landowner from Upper 
Canada who persuaded him to come to this part of 
the world and try his hand at farming. He arrived in 
the flourishing village of Harpurhey, near Seaforth in 
the Huron Tract. All my written sources tell me the 
village has long since disappeared, but in conversa- 
tion with R.W.Bro. Clare Reith of Britannia Lodge, 
No. 170 I am informed it still exists and I have since 
been and have seen it for myself, not as an incorp- 
orated municipality but as a part of Seaforth where 
the residents definitely feel they live in Harpurhey. 
Otto spent 2 months helping to clear the land and 
put up log houses. It required only that length of 
time to bring him to the decision this was not the 
kind of work he wanted. 

It was then that someone gave him what was 
probably the best advice he ever received in his 
whole life. "Otto" that someone said, "You are a 
young man, strong, clever, intelligent. If you really 
want to make something of yourself and gain success 
and achievement, GO TO PRESTON." (Actually it is 
recorded only that he was told of the Village of 
Preston as being a desirable place to find a means of 
establishing himself. I made the other up myself 
because I thought it sounded much more likely.) 
However, he did go to Preston midway between 
Toronto and London, and there he prospered. 

Let me relate to you his own account of his 

coming and, very briefly, of his life, from an article 

he wrote in 1886 entitled "Sketch of the History of 
the Village of Preston." 

"Among those who came here in 1837 was Mr. 
Otto Klotz (speaking of himself in the 3rd person). 
He purchased a property abandoned by one Richard 
Haste who had erected a small brewery: and for 
several years Mr. Klotz carried on the brewery. In 
1839 he partly erected the premises for many years 
known as Klotz' Hotel and later continued to in- 
crease the same to their present dimensions. In 1862 
Mr. Klotz erected a starch factory which, however, 
proved to be a losing undertaking and it was there- 
fore discontinued. The premises and machinery were 
subsequently leased for manufacturing purposes but 
they took fire in 1873 and were completely gutted. 
Whether it was the act of an incendiary or was 
caused by spontaneous combustion was never as- 
certained: the heavy losses which he thereby sus- 
tained were fully ascertained. Four years ago (i.e. in 
1882) he leased his hotel premises, the name being 
changed to Central Hotel and retired into private life 
continuing only his office as Division Court Clerk, 
Conveyancer, and other kindred offices together with 
a number of trust offices without fee or emolument." 

It is evident that although he dabbled in many 

and varied enterprises his chief employment was as a 
hotel keeper. A short biography in "The Province of 
Ontario a History 1615-1927" by Jesse Edgar 
Middleton relates, "For 40 years he became known 
throughout that part of the Dominion as a delightful 
host and a capable hotel man. Travellers from all 
parts of the world and from all walks of life enjoyed 
the hospitality of his House and he prospered as his 
name and service to the public grew and expanded 
among the friends of his patrons who spoke so 
highly of him." 

Not long after Klotz arrived in Preston he 
became acquainted with a kindly, elderly gentleman 
by the name of William Scollick who I remember 
learning of in local history classes who gave the 
community its name from his home town in England. 
He was referred to as Squire Scollick then, and I 
recall wondering what a Squire was. Scollinck was a 
surveyor, conveyancer and commissioner of the court 
of Bequest. He apparently took a liking to this young 
German immigrant with the methodical mind and the 
phenomenal penmanship and he instructed him in 
conveyancing which, for Klotz, became a useful and 
profitable sideline. Conveyancing is no longer a 
familiar line of work, perhaps I should explain that a 
conveyancer in Otto Klotz' day was one who drew up 
deeds and other documents transferring the owner- 
ship of real property from one person to another. It 
is a function that is performed by a member of the 
legal profession today. 

Otto Klotz was Preston's, and probably Waterloo 
County's, most public- spirited citizen of the 19th 
century according to local historian, Mrs. T.D. 
Cowan. Let me run through some of the positions he 
held in the community as related by Mrs. Cowan: 

—In 1844 a Hook and Ladder Company of 22 
men was formed to protect Preston property from 
fire, Klotz was its first secretary. 


-In 1850 this was upgraded to a full fledged 

Fire Company with the acquisition of a fire engine 

and other apparatus. Klotz continued to act as 

-He became a naturalized British Citizen in 
1844 (aged 27). He was appointed 'a Notary Public in 
1846 (aged 19), a Commissioner for the taking of 
affidavits and Clerk of the Division Court in 1848 
(aged 31). Finally a Justice of the Peace in 1853 
(aged 36). He was the first Clerk of Council for 
the Village of Preston when it was incorporated in 
1852 (aged 35). 

—He was first President of the Preston Hort- 
icultural Society in 1878 (aged 50). 

-He was a long time Director and once Pres- 
ident of the Waterloo County Agricultural Society. 

—He was Chairman of St. Peter's Lutheran 
Church Building Committee and was Master of 
Ceremonies at the cornerstone laying when the 
church was built in 1887 (aged 70). I mention these 
various ages to indicate that his activities spread 
over his lifetime. 

Shortly after the end of the Franco-German 
war he was elected President of the German Soci- 
eties and as such he delivered the Peace Jubilee 
Address to an audience of several thousands in front 
of the courthouse on May 2, 1871. 

He was first secretary and later president of 

the newly formed Conservative Party organization in 

the electoral division. But I am not sure what to 

make of this statement taken from his obituary in 

"The Dumfries Reformer, Gait, Waterloo County" 14 
July 1892. "Mr. Klotz commenced to take an active 

part in politics as early as 1838 (aged 21) when he 

was required to shoulder a gun and stand guard at 


Grand River bridge, upon a report that a band of 
rebels was coming from London to invade Waterloo." 
I suppose that could be a reason to enter politics. 

He founded the Mechanics Institute in 1871 
using hundreds of books from his own library. If you 
wonder why he became involved in a Society of 
Mechanics when a mechanic was one of the few 
things he was not, I should explain the Mechanics 
Institutes. They have gone out of existence with the 
development of our education system. The first one 
was formed in England in 1824. They were intended 
to supplement the education system of the day 
usually with evening classes to give factory workers 
instruction in the scientific principles of work shop 

You might say they were the forerunners of our 
present system of evening classes in the schools. 
Otto Klotz brought this to Preston. 

This brings us to the whole field of education 
which was by far the most dominant of all his 
efforts in community work. Otto Klotz was Secretary 
of the Preston Board of Education from 1839 to 1891 
except the years 1859 and 1860 when he was the 
Board's Chairman. When the Village of Preston was 
incorporated he was appointed Superintendent of 
Schools serving for 17 years from 1853 to 1870 on 
the County Board of examiners of teachers. Preston's 
first school was built in 1839 on property that 
became 849 Queenston Road. The first trustees were 
Isaac Salyards, Otto Klotz and Jacob Beck (whose 
son became Sir Adam Beck who was knighted for 
creating the Ontario Hydro Commission). His work in 
education is best noted for two particular causes he 
espoused and achieved. 

First: He made Preston's school the first free 
school in Upper Canada. Previously parents were 
required to pay a fee for each child attending 
school. The fee was small but enough to prevent 


some children from attending school. Klotz stren- 
uously urged Dr. Edgerton Ryerson, Supt. of Common 
Schools for Upper Canada, to establish a free system 
for all schools. "You are right, Mr. Klotz" Ryerson 
replied, "but the people have first to be educated up 
to that standard". And so he did. By written and 
spoken word he put his case to the trustees and the 
rate payers of the community resulting in the estab- 
lishment of the new free system in 1848. (Klotz was 
then aged 31). 

Subsequently he received another letter from 
Dr. Ryerson, "I hope that in a few years a number 
of the schools will follow your example of voluntarily 
establishing free schools and then will the time be 
right to make free schools compulsory". As a matter 
of fact, 23 years later, in 1871, four years after 
Confederation, free schools did, indeed, become 
compulsory by reason of a piece of legislation known 
as "The School Act of 1871". 

Otto Klotz' second major achievement in the 
field of education in 1865 was an expose of "the 
Irish National Readers" which at that time were the 
authorized readers for common schools. Assisted by 2 
teachers of the Preston School he produced the 
expose that criticized the readers for the abundance 
of misspelled words, ungrammatical constructions, 
historical blunders and words and expressions un- 
suitable for children. Especially they criticized the 
absence of any article that might tend to evoke a 
feeling of patriotism in the minds of the pupils. One 
result of the expose was another exchange of 
correspondence between Otto Klotz and Dr. Edgerton 
Ryerson. Another result was that the newly formed 
Teachers' Association of Canada unanimously passed 
a resolution urging the necessity of substituting a 
series of reading books in the elementary schools 
better adapted to the requirements of our Canadian 
schools than were the Irish National Readers. How- 
ever, because of procrastination, controversy and 
lack of funds 19 years before Klotz was to see his 


efforts rewarded when the offending books were 
replaced by a new Canadian series in 1884. 

One final note in educational matters: Otto 
Klotz maintained an interest in and concern for the 
German language and Preston, at that time, had a 
sizeable German segment in its population. He 
obtained permission for German teachers to be exam- 
ined in the German language and he had charge of 
preparing the questions for the examinations. At the 
insistence of several teachers he, in 1867, prepared a 
German Grammar for the use of German pupils and 
for those studying German as a second language. He 
himself had the Grammar published. These books 
were used especially in FYeston and in Berlin 
(Kitchener). In this he was applauded and supported 
by Dr. Ryerson, a Methodist minister by the way, 
who not only approved but learned the German 
language himself and urged his children to do like- 
wise. Klotz, however, stressed to his German pupils 
and teachers the absolute necessity of learning 
English. "I was persuaded" he wrote in a letter to 
his son, "it was only a matter of time and of short 
duration when the people would come to the convic- 
tion that the teaching of English to their children 
was of paramount importance and that instead of 
teaching German exclusively, it should be taught as 
an auxiliary." 

Bro. Klotz was initiated into Masonry in the 
Barton Lodge No. 11 (formerly No. 10 now No. 6) in 
Hamilton, on June 10, 1846, the second year in the 
short life of the 3rd Provincial Grand Lodge. Prob- 
ably because of the rather long distance between 
Preston and Hamilton he seems not to have taken 
any active role in the work of The Barton Lodge. 
The only reference to him in the history of that 
lodge, written by Norman MacDonald and published 
in 1945 is the account of the presentation to Bro. 
Klotz of the regalia of a P.G.M. on the occasion of 
their 90th Anniversary on January 13, 1886. 


The first meeting of Alma Lodge No. 39 (now 
No. 72) was held on August 21, 1856 and 11 members 
attended. One of them was Otto Klotz, who is noted 
in the role as an honorary member. From 1857 to 
1863 Otto Klotz held the offices of Junior Warden, 
Senior Warden, and Senior Deacon. In those early 
days members of that lodge seemed to be taking 
turns each meeting in the chairs. He was Worshipful 
Master of Alma Lodge in 1863, 1864 and 1865. 

He affiliated with The Grand River lodge No. 
151, Berlin in 1866. The lodge marks him an honorary 
life member in 1886. Gait Lodge No. 257 bestowed 
honorary life membership in 1872. In 1869 Grand 
Lodge divided Huron Masonic District and Wor. Bro. 
Klotz was appointed the first D.D.G.M. of the newly 
formed Wellington District. He was the first Worship- 
ful Master of Preston Lodge No. 297 in 1873. The 
lodge that bears his name, The Otto Klotz Lodge, 
No. 731 was instituted October 31, 1977. 

In 1885 he was honored by Grand Lodge with 
the rank of Past Grand Master (honorary). The 
reasons assigned for this action are best described in 
the words of the citation that accompanied and 
indeed were a part of the honour conferred: 

Dear Sir and Most Worshipful Master: 

Your brethren of the Grand Lodge of Canada 
embrace this opportunity of bearing testimony to the 
zeal and ability with which you have endeavoured to 
further its interests since you became connected with 
the Craft. From the time of your entrance into the 
Grand Lodge in 1858 you have been constant in your 
attendance and have diligently performed all duties 
incumbent upon you in the various positions you 
have been called upon to fill. As Warden, Past 
Master and District Deputy Grand Master (I can only 
assume the omission of Worshipful Master is an 
oversight), you have served the Grand Lodge effi- 
ciently and as a member of the Board of General 


Purposes continuously since 1864, you have taken a 
full share and often more than a due proportion of 
the labours of that body. It is, however, more in 
connection with the practical exemplification of that 
virtue which may justiy be denominated the disting- 
uished characteristic of Freemason's heart, that your 
name has become so widely known and will be long 

As the Chairman of the Committee on Benev- 
olence you have systematized the large expenditure 
of the Grand Lodge for this praiseworthy object to a 
remarkable degree and your perfect records of this 
department of Masonic work deserves the highest 

Reference should also be made to your excellent 
compilation of the resolutions of Grand Lodge and 
rulings of Grand Masters, which have proved of 
great use to the Craft in this jurisdiction and also 
to your valuable aid on the Committee on Ritual and 
Revision of the Constitution. 

At the last annual communication of the Grand 
Lodge of Canada, it was resolved by an unanimous 
vote that the rank of Honorary Past Grand Master 
should be conferred upon you in recognition of the 
long and distinguished service rendered by you to 
this Grand Lodge. 

We have then. Most Worshipful Sir, very great 
pleasure in presenting you with the regalia of a Past 
Grand Master, and we trust that you may long be 
spared by the favour of the G.A.O.T.U. to wear it, as 
a mark of the esteem and respect in which you are 
held by your brethren in Freemasonry. 

Fraternally yours, 
Henry Robertson, D.G.M. 
Henry MacPherson,P.G.S.W. 

HAMILTON, Ontario, Thomas Sargent, P.D.D.G.M. 

January 13th, A.L.5886 


To elaborate slightly on some of the points 
touched on in the citation, let me add. He served as 
chairman of the Committee on Benevolence from 1863 
to 1892 (the year of his death). In 1872-73 he assem- 
bled the first comprehensive index of all recipients 
of benevolent grants from Grand Lodge. He was 
named to the standing committee on the ritual in 
1867 and again in 1884. In 1874 he compiled approp- 
riate ceremonies for consecrating, dedicating and 
constituting a lodge, and for installing the W.M. and 
investing the officers. They were all published in 
1876. In 1875 he drew up a handbook of the resolu- 
tions of Grand Lodge and the rulings of Grand 
Masters which would serve as a supplement to the 
Book Constitution. This proved so useful that a 
second, enlarged edition was issued in 1883, and 
remained, with additions, a part of our Book of 
Constitution until the new and revised edition of 
that book in 1980. 

He was named, in 1885, as Chairman of a 
special comittee to review the Constitution and the 
new revision was adopted in 1887. He was one of a 
three man committee together with M.W. Bro. Daniel 
Spry and R.W. Bro. Henry Robertson who brought 
forth a resolution in 1885 to change the name of our 
Grand Lodge by adding the words "in the Province of 
Ontario" to the previous style, "The Grand Lodge of 
A.F. & A.M. of Canada". This was in response to 
complaints from the Grand Lodges of other provinces 
of our use of the style "of Canada", with the in- 
ference that our jurisdiction was nationwide. 

Then there was "The General Charge in the 
Ceremony of Installation" probably the best loved 
and most quoted of any part of our ritual. It was 
compiled and written by Otto Klotz. R.W. Bro. 
Wallace McLeod speaking at an installation and in- 
vestiture ceremony at Moira Lodge No. 11, Belleville 
says of this charge, "in its entirety it is magnificent 
and contains the very essence of Masonry." 


We are indebted to M.W.Bro. William Kirk Bailey 
for researching the sources of its various parts: 

The first and the final paragraphs are from the 
early English ritual. 

The second paragraph beginning "Masonry, my 
brethren, according to the general acceptance of the 
term.. .."is taken from the "Introductory address", to 
what in England is called "The First Lecture" first 
printed in 1798 in Browne's "Masonic Master Key" 
believed to have been compiled by William Preston. 

The third paragraph beginning "Freemasonry 
from its origin to the present time...." is taken from 
the Grand Master's address delivered to the Grand 
Lodge of Canada at Ottawa, 11 July 1860 by our first 
Grand Master, William Mercer Wilson. 

The fourth paragraph beginning "A Freemason's 
Lodge is the temple of peace, harmony and brotherly 
love...." and the fifth paragraph beginning "the object 
however of meeting in the Lodge...." are both from a 
toast to the Queen and the Craft delivered on 
December 27, 1864 to a Ladies Night held at Alma 
Lodge No. 72, Gait, by V.W. Bro. Otto Klotz himself 
when he was W.M. of the Lodge. 

The entire section on the "ideal of a Free- 
mason" is likewise written by Otto Klotz appearing 
at the end of an article entitled, "The History of 
Freemasonry" published in "The (Canadian) Crafts- 
man" for March 15, 1868. 

The General Charge has endured and undoubted- 
ly will continue to endure as the greatest of several 
legacies left to us by our very esteemed brother. 
Otto Klotz. 

The writer in "Whence Come We" speaks of 
Otto Klotz as, "capable wordsmith, not withstanding 


a tendency to favour long, involved, Teutonic sen- 
tences." I want to give you a sample of his writing 
when he is in "full flight" so to speak. Hear him as 
he begins his Toast to the Queen and the Craft in 
Alma Lodge on December 27, 1864: "Ladies and 
Gentlemen," he begins, "in proposing the first toast 
of the evening which is the Queen and the Craft it 
is hardly necessary to make any preliminary remarks 
in reference to our noble Queen; the very name, 
when mentioned is sufficient to awaken that feeling 
of veneration and attachment which is so deeply 
planted in the heart of not only every Briton, but 
every good subject of her majesty - that sovereign 
who unquestionably is the noblest, the best of all 
the monarchs that ever held the sceptre of Grand 
Britain; loved and reverenced by all her millions of 
subjects and highly respected by every civilized 
nation under the canopy of heaven. 

But in respect of the Craft which, according to 
Masonic custom, is coupled with the Queen, it may 
not be inopportune to give a few explanations 
regarding that so-called secret and mysterious broth- 
erhood, the Freemasons, especially so since the 
brethren are this evening honored with the presence 
of so many ladies, whose amiable company they do 
not often enjoy in this manner. To the ladies, there- 
fore, I shall endeavour to explain what Freemasonry 
is and in what the real secrets of the Craft 

M.W. Bro. Otto Klotz was married to Elizabeth 
Wilhelm, a native of Brettenbach in Germany. Her 
family emigrated to Canada and she grew up on her 
father's farm in Wilmot Township. Elizabeth and Otto 
had 1 1 children seven of whom survived: 

Dorothy bom 1839, married Dr. D. Mylius: 

Hon. Jacob E, born 1840, a bachelor who be- 
came Mayor of Preston in 1901 and President of 
Canadian Office & School Furniture Company where 


he designed the familiar elementary school desk 
where the back of one unit served as the front of 
the desk behind it that flourished in schools across 
the country for generations: 

Christine , who died at an early age: 

Augusta W. bom 1845 who never married but 
lived with her bachelor brother Jacob and was said 
to have been gracious hostess at all his social 

Carl bom 1847 became one of the earliest 
orthodontists and who practiced in St. Catherines 
and was W.M. of Preston Lodge in 1880: 

Emil bom 1854 who operated a china importing 
business in Toronto: 

Otto Julius , bom 1857 who became the Domin- 
ion Surveyor and surveyed the Alaska- Yukon borders 
and later became Dominion Astronomer and Director 
of the Dominion Observatory from 1917 to 1923, and 
was W.M. of Preston Lodge 1881-83-84. 

M.W. Bro. Klotz died July 6, 1892 at age 75. His 
funeral was conducted under the auspices of the 
Grand Lodge by M.W. Bro. John Ross Robertson 
I.P.G.M. assisted by R.W. Bro. LJ. Mason, G. Sec'y, 
R.W. Bro. Hon. Gibson M.P.P., R.W. Bro. A. Jardine of 
Hespeler, R.W. Bro. Forsythe of Berlin, W. Bro. W.D. 
Hepburn a P.M. of Preston Lodge and others. His 
wife, Elizabeth, followed him in death just 27 days 
later on August 2nd. They were both laid to rest in 
the large family plot in Preston Cemetery. The plot 
is 25' square yet only 3 members of the family were 
ever buried there, Otto, Elizabeth and their daughter 
Augusta. Ironically the massive gravestone in the 
centre of the family plot measuring 7'x4 1/2x6 1/3' 
high gives no visible indication that Bro. Klotz was a 
Mason, neither in the German inscription or by any 
symbol. It was only by accident that I discovered the 


top of the stone (too high to be observed from 
normal eye level) is designed to represent a scroll on 
which is engraved a huge square and compasses. One 
wonders why our familiar symbol was placed where it 
could not be seen. 

Incredibly, for all that Otto Klotz did in and 
for the village and later the Town of Preston, there 
has been little in the way of lasting recognition of 
his extraordinary accomplishments. No street has 
been named in his honour, no park, no building, air- 
port or bowling alley. There is an historic tablet in 
front of the Municipal Building honouring John Erb 
the founder of the community and another in Central 
Park honouring his son. Otto Julius, the astronomer, 
but you will seek in vain for a similar tablet to 
honour our esteemed brother. When the bronze tablet 
honouring Dr. Otto Julius was unveiled at Preston 
Town Hall in 1952 (it has since been moved to the 
park) Dr. Fred Landon, Chairman of the Historic 
Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, indicated that 
a similar tablet could have been placed to honour the 
father. To which we could all say "Amen". 

When I was young there used to be a small, 
rather murky body of water formed by damming up a 
stream that flowed through the town. It was called 
Klotz' Dam, I am not sure why. It has long since 
disappeared. The site is now the parking lot of 
Eastern Steel - Frink of Canada Ltd. 

Ironically there is a Ryerson Public School in 
the town honouring Edgerton Ryerson with whom 
Otto Klotz had to do battle at times in order to 
achieve what he envisaged for the food of education 
in the local school and in the district. But there is 
no Otto Klotz school. The only public recognition I 
know of for this remarkable man is the small plaque 
mounted on a huge rock outside the Preston, 
Hespeler Masonic Temple erected by the Masons of 
Preston Lodge No. 297 to honour their first Worship- 
ful Master. 


(at this point, R.W.Bro. Grimwood presented 16 
coloured slides with the aid of a large screen) 

Before closing this paper I am going to quote 
from something Otto Klotz wrote in a letter to his 
son, Otto Julius, just months before he died wherein 
he sets down a history of the Preston School and 
statistics concerning the more than 50 years he had 
been so closely associated with it. He wrote this at 
the request of his son who wanted a permanent 
record of just what his father had done in the field 
of education in the town. He ended the letter with 
this paragraph that could stand as a statement of his 
philosophy for living: 

Now my dear Otto by delivering to you this 
book and these papers on file for the purpose 
above stated I entertain the conviction that an 
occasional reference and perusal of the same in after 
years, when I shall no longer be seeing you but am 
resting in my grave, will give you ample evidence 
that the resolve I made when a youth of about 20 
years, to the effect that I would do all in my power 
to aid in the promotion of a good rational and 
liberal eduction for our rising generation has been 
conscientiously fulfilled, to the best of my ability 
during 54 long years of my connection with the 
Preston school as one of its trustees and that I have 
experienced many pleasant and gratifying results 
from my labours in so noble a cause embraced by me 
from pure love of the same. Your affectionate father. 
Otto Klotz, Preston, February, 1892. 

Most Wor. Bro. Klotz - his contribution to his 
community and to Freemasonry was outstanding. He 
had a keen mind and a will to work. He was 
thorough and exacting in whatever he set himself to 
do. He encouraged industry and rewarded merit in 
those around him. He seems to have supplied wants 
and relieved necessities wherever he found them. He 
was a craftsman. 


Note: On the 25th of May, 1987, Cambridge City 
Council officially named a new park on Dolph Street 
in the Preston area of the city, "Klotz Park" to 
honour the Klotz family. 


Encyclopedia Britannica - Article "The Schleswig— 
Holstein Question" Article "Technical Education". 

The Province of Ontario - A History 1615-1927 by 
Jesse Edgar Middleton-Biographical entry on Otto 

Whence Come We - Editor Wallace McLeod, Article 
"Life of Otto Klotz" pp 1 12-1 16. 

Preston Lodge Centennial Booklet J 973 - Article 
"Our Honorary Past Grand Master,Most Worshipful 
Brother Otto Klotz" compiled by Worshipful Brother 
Harold Hauser. 

Reports of Waterloo Historical Society 1913 - Article , 
some german setders of Waterloo County by Mr. W. 
H. Breithaupt 1963 - Article , a brief survey of the 
history of Ontario Public School tests by Hugh 
Douglas, B.A.B.Ed. 

The Cambridge Times , 25 November 1981, page 82, 
Article "Looking Back". 

Handbook of the Ceremony of Installation and Inves- 
titure of the Officers of a Lodge "VI - The General 
Charge at the Ceremony of Installation", p 15. 

Charlie Grimwood 
* * * 




R.W.Bro. Robert T. Runciman 

The term Masonic Jurisprudence is very broad 
and all encompassing. There have been numerous 
texts written about the subject and also about 
specific topics. It may be more accurate to entitle 
this paper An Introduction to Masonic Jurisprudence 
with the intention to give a broad general overview 
of the topic. The approach will not be philosophical, 
but rather practical. It is hoped that this paper will 
kindle the reader's interest and motivate him to 
extend his research into other areas. The direction 
of this paper will be to analyze the Sources of 
Masonic Jurisprudence, its application as well as 
interpretation between Grand Lodges, within Grand 
Lodge and between Masons. 


Every sovereign state, corporation and organ- 
ization has a set of rules by which it is governed. 
They are variously called Constitutions, Statutes or 
By-laws and they range from very complex and tech- 
nical state constitutions to very short and simple 
by-laws of a loosely-knit community neighbourhood 

Naturally disagreements and misunderstandings 
arise as to the interpretation and application of the 
laws. The application and interpretation of the laws 
of a sovereign state rest with the judicial branch of 
government. The interpretation and application of 
by-laws and regulations of an organization rest 

♦Paper presented at the Regular Meeting of the 
Heritage Lodge held in the Hanover Masonic Hall, 
Hanover, Wednesday evening, March 16, 1988. 


with the board of directors or the governing body 
under a different name. In Freemasonry that duty 
rests in Grand Lodge. There are, however, occasions 
when matters in dispute have to be settled in a 
court of law. Fortunately, in Canada and particularly 
in Ontario, the Craft has been able to setde its 
differences amicably and has not had to resort to 
the courts, thereby exposing itself to publicity which 
naturally results from court proceedings. 

The philosophy and the science of the law and 
how it is applied and interpreted is called jurispru- 
dence. Black's Law Dictionary defines jurisprudence 
as: "The philosophy of law, or the science which 
treats of the principles of positive law and legal 

In the proper sense of the word, "jurisprudence" 
is the science of law, namely, that science which has 
for its functions to ascertain the principles on which 
legal rules are based, so as not only to classify 
those rules in their proper order, and show the rela- 
tion in which they stand to one another, but also to 
settle the manner in which new or doubtful cases 
should be brought under the appropriate rules. 

Jurisprudence is more a formal than a material 
science. It has no direct concern with questions of 
moral or political policy, for they fall under the 
province of ethics and legislation; but, when a new 
or doubtful case arises to which two different rules 
seem, when taken literally, to be equally applicable, 
it may be, and often is, the function of jurispru- 
dence to consider the ultimate effect which would be 
produced if each rule were applied to an indefinite 
number of similar cases, and to chose that rule 
which, when so applied, wiy produce the greatest 
advantage to the community." The term jurisprud- 

ence is also applied, in a more narrow sense, to the 
body of law or course of decisions which develops in 

♦Superscript numbers refer to the numbered ref- 


the courts relating to a specific area or subject of 
the law. There is now developing in the courts a 
body of jurisprudence relating to The Canadian 
Charter of Rights and Freedoms. It is also applied to 
the law relating to the professions, as in medical 
jurisprudence. Roscoe Pound, a noted American 
authority on Masonic Jurisprudence stated: "We come 
back, therefore, to our question whether Masonic 
jurisprudence is simply a grandiose name for Masonic 
law or whether, on the other hand, there is a 
science of Masonic law distinct from the law of each 
Masonic jurisdiction? Is there, in other words, an 
organized body of knowledge above and behind each 
particular local Masonic law upon which the latter 
rests and fully and truly as the particular legal rules 
of one of our commonwealths rest upon the prin- 
ciples of general legal science and the principles of 
Anglo-American legal tradition? For the moment I 
shall assume that there is, and my purpose in this 
course will be, not to expound dogmatically the rules 
of Masonic law which obtain here or elsewhere, but 
to show, if I may, that there is a science of Masonic 
law, to examine its ^material and its methods, and to 
set forth its principles." 

Freemasonry because of its antiquity and 
universality is governed by rules which arise out of 
its own peculiar system of organization. They are 
derived from ancient usage, established customs and 
enactments of its various governing bodies. Masonic 
jurisprudence, for the purposes of this paper, may be 
considered as the philosophy or the science of the 
law which governs Freemasonry. 


The Landmarks 

In all systems of law the sources are usually 
buried in antiquity. It is difficult with any degree of 
accuracy to establish when these sources were 
formally established. 


The use of the work Landmarks can be traced 
to quotations from the Scriptures. There are three 
sources (1) Job XXIV - 2 - "Some remove the 
landmarks; they violently take away flocks, and feed 
thereof* (2) "Remove not the ancient landmarks 
which thy fathers have set" Proverbs XXII - 28 (3) 
"Cursed be he that removeth his neighbours 'land- 
mark" Deuteronomy XXVII - 17. 

Our Ritual has references to the Landmarks. 
The newly passed Craftsman is told "that he may 
offer his sentiments and opinions... under the 
Superintendence of an experienced Master, who will 
guard our landmarks..." the newly raised Master 
Mason is told that he is to preserve the ancient 
landmarks. The Master, before being placed in the 
chair, . pledges to preserve the landmarks of the 

Roscoe Pound defines the term Landmark thus: 
"I take it that by the term Landmark of Masonry we 
mean one of a body of fundamental precepts of 
universal Masonic validity, binding on Masons and 
Masonic organizations everywhere and at all times; 
precepts beyond the reach of Masonic legislation, 
adherence to which by Masons and by organizations 
of Masons is a j)rerequisite of recognition as Masons 
or as Masonic." He states that he is absolutely 
certain that there are but seven Landmarks." They 

1) Belief in God 

2) Belief in the persistence of personality i.e. 
the immortality of the soul 

3) A "book of law" as an indispensible part of 
the furniture of a lodge. 

4) The legend of the Third Degree 

5) Secrecy 


6) The symbolism of the operative art 

7) That a Mason must be a man, free-bom and 
of age. 

Albert Mackey. The well-known Masonic authority, 
lists twentyfive Landmarks. These landmarks may be 
briefly summarized as follows: 

1) The modes of recognition 

2) The division of symbolic Masonry into three 

3) The legend of the third degree 

4) The government of the Fraternity by a 
Grand Master 

5) The prerogative of the Grand Master to 
preside over every assembly of the Craft. 

6) The prerogative of the Grand Master to 
grant dispensation for conferring degrees at 
irregular intervals 

7) The prerogative of the Grand Master to give 
Dispensations for opening and holding lodges 

8) the prerogative of the Grand Master to make 
Masons at sight 

9) The necessity for Masons to congregate in 

10) The government of the Craft when cong- 
regated in a lodge, by a Master and two 

11) The necessity that every lodge, when cong- 
regated, should be duly titled 


12) The right of every Mason to be represented 
in all general meetings of the Craft 

13) The right of every Mason to appeal from his 
brethren, in lodge convened, to the Grand 

14) The right of every Mason to visit and sit in 
every regular lodge 

15) That no visitor, unknown to the brethren 
present or some one of them as a Mason, 
can enter a lodge without first passing an 
examination according to ancient usage 

16) No lodge can interfere with the business of 
another lodge 

17) Every Freemason is amenable to the laws 
and regulations of the Masonic jurisdiction 
in which he resides 

18) A candidate for initiation must be a man, 
free bom, unmutilated and of mature age 

19) A belief in the existence of God as the 
Grand Architect of the Universe 

20) Belief in a resurrection to a future life 

21) A "Book of the Law" constitutes an indis- 
pensable part of the furniture of every lodge 

22) The equality of all Masons 

23) The secrecy of the institution 

24) The foundation of a Speculative science upon 
an operative art 

25) These landmarks can never be changed 


Both Mackey and Pound appear to be ad idem on 
the three criteria which must exist before sl custom 
or a rule can be considered a Landmark. These 
three criteria may be stated as: 

1) Immemorial antiquity , that is, it must have 
existed as Mackey states from "time whereof 
the memory of man runneth not to the 

2) Universality , it must be accepted by all 
Masons and all masonic governing bodies 

3) Absolute irrevocability , that is, it cannot be 
revoked, repealed or amended in any way by 
any masonic authority. 

The existence of these Landmarks ensures that 
there will be stability in the Craft and have 
contributed to its longevity. It is perhaps fair to 
state that a Landmark is that without which 
Freemasonry cannot exist and determines the limit 
which a Grand Lodge cannot exceed. 

In the last century Masonic writers quoted 
Mackey 's twenty-five Landmarks with approval. As 
with any matter so basic to the existence of the 
Craft there will always be differences of opinion and 
debate as to what constitutes a Landmark. Some 
Grand Lodges in the United States have adopted 
specific Landmarks and they appear as a preamble to 
the Constitution .^ 

In 1920, the United Grand Lodge of England 
issued a statement entitled Aims and Relationships of 
the Craft which itemized some, and perhaps all of 
the Landmarks. This statement was distributed to all 
Lodges . throughout Ontario by authority of the Grand 
Master.^ It has never been specifically endorsed by 
the Book of Constitution perhaps because once it 
becomes part of the Constitution it can be changed. 


If it can be changed then it ceases to be a Land- 
mark, as defined by Mackey and Pound. The Grand 
Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario has from 
time tot time asserted its adherence to these land- 

There is no doubt that there are Landmarks 
which govern the Craft and preserve its stability. 
Likewise, there is no absolute agreement as to what 
the landmarks are, although there may be a degree 
of consensus on some or part of them. It is, 
however, unchallenged that what can be changed is 
not a landmark. Gould, an English historian, after 
searching for a definitive list of landmarks stated: 
"Nobody knows what they comprise or omit; they are 
of no earthly authority because everything is a 
landmark when an opponent desires to jsilence you, 
but nothing is a landmark that stands in his way". 

The Unwritten Law 

In the Anglo-Canadian system of law there 
exists what is known as the common law. The 
common law is not codified, but on occasion it 
becomes so confused or such a dramatic change is 
required in the law that it may then become codified 
by a statutory enactment. An example of the recent 
codification of the law is in the area of consumer 
protection, the legal theory of "caveat emptor" - let 
the buyer beware - has been varied to give the 
buyer much more protection than he previously had 
under common law. The common law developed in the 
Canadian legal system from the usages and customs 
of England. They were brought to Canada as the 
country was colonized by the English. As the Canad- 
ian legal system matured a body of common law was 
developed to meet unique Canadian conditions and 
problems. Although there is a distinct body of 
Canadian common law developed through precedent - 
stare decisis - the genesis of our legal system rests 
in English Law. 


Likewise in Masonic jurisprudence, there appear 
to be two distinct uses of the term common law. 
Firstly, that body of usage and custom which 
developed in the eighteenth century after the 
formation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717. 
Secondly, that body of common law developed in the 
various Grand Lodges through rulings of Grand 
Masters. These rulings evolve from the interpretation 
and application of their respective Constitutions and 
also the application of Masonic common law in their 
particular jurisdictions. 

In this section of the paper the common law 
arising from usages after 1717 will be discussed. The 
rulings of Grand Masters will be considered in the 
section relating to the written law. It is more 
convenient and proper to consider the topic under 
that heading because many of the Rulings have been 
written into and form part of the Book of Constitu- 
tion . 

Any discussion of Masonic common law must out 
of necessity commence with consideration of the 
Landmarks. In the preceding section it was noted 
that Mackey delineated twenty-five landmarks. Pound, 
on the other hand, argues that there are but seven 
landmarks. He argues that the remaining eighteen are 
Masonic common law because they do not pass the 
test for a landmark. These tests are 1) Immemorial 
antiquity 2) Universality 3) Absolute irrevocability 
and immutability. 

Pound examines each of the landmarks enumer- 
ated by Mackey. He expands those which appear to 
him to be more doctrines or institutions of Masonic 
common law and not landmarks. Pound, for exam- 
ple, examines Mackey's fourth Landmark "The go- 
vernment of the Fraternity by a presiding officer 
called a Grand Master who is elected from the body 
of the Craft". He argues that there is every reason 
to believe that there were no Grand Masters prior to 
the election of Sayer on St. John the Baptist day 



There is abundant evidence that Masonry was 
widely diffused as far back as the middle 1600's and 
that speculative Masonry was widely diffused in the 
seventeenth century. Had there been the office of 
Grand Master, or some similar title, it would most 
certainly have appeared in minutes and writings 
which were voluminous at that time. 

After the formation of the Grand Lodge of 
England in 1717 the office of Grand Master became a 
cornerstone of the Fraternity and it is firmly 
entrenched in the traditions of Freemasonry. Hence 
Pound argues that the office of Grand Master is not 
a Landmark, but rather a part of Masonic common 
law. It necessarily follows that any Landmark based 
on what Pound finds not to be a Landmark cannot 
itself be a Landmark. This is evident in Mackey's 
Landmarks numbered five to eight. This paper will 
not analyze each one of the Landmarks which 
Mackey established. Suffice it to say that for present 
purposes, what Mackey may have considered a 
Landmark may not meet the test and, therefore, 
according to Pound is part of the Masonic common 
law which forms part of the cornerstone of Free- 

The Written Law 

At the beginning of Chapter 2 of his book, 
Mackey states: "Next to the unwritten laws, or 
Landmarks of Masonry, come its written or statutory 
laws. These are the 'regulations' as they are usually 
called, which have been enacted from time to time 
by General Assemblies, Grand Lodges, or other 
supreme authorities of the Order. They are in their 
character either general or local. "^ The vmtten law 
is declaratory in nature and is often not a declara- 
tion of new law, but the authoritative codification 
and publication of already existing law. The law is 
made declaratory when it becomes necessary to make 


a choice between conflicting rules or traditions or to 
harmonize the conflicting rules or traditions. 

There are several manuscripts in existence 
dating back to the end of the fourteenth century 
which contain the traditions and regulations of the 
Craft. Over a period of time these regulations and 
traditions, which were originally transmitted orally, 
were reduced to writing. As these manuscripts were 
recopied they were amended and edited. In the 
eighteenth century when the Grand Lodge of England 
was formed, these ancient charges were transformed 
into a body of law to govern the new Grand Lodge. 
These Old Charges and General Regulations were 
compiled by George Payne, Grand Master in 1721, 
and first appeared in Anderson's Constitutions in 

Paton, "^ when writing about the Written Law 
of Freemasonry stated that the General Regulations 
were those that have been enacted by supreme 
authorities of the Order which at the time had 
universal jurisdiction over the Craft. All Masonic 
jurists agree that regulations adopted before 1721 are 
general in nature. Paton goes on to state that the 
General Regulations, or the universal Written Law of 
Masonry is contained within a small compass of 
documents namely: 

1. The Old York Constitutions of A.D. 926 

2. The Constitution of Edward III 

3. The Regulations of A.D. 1663 

4. The Ancient Installation Charges 

5. The Ancient Charges at Makings 

6. The Regulations of A.D. 1703 

7. The Regulations of A.D. 1717 


8. The Regulations of A.D. 1720 

9. The Charges approved in A.D. 1722 

10. The General Regulations of A.D. 1721 

The Ancient Charges generally refer to the 
relation of the individual Brother to his Lodge and 
to his Brethren, and the General Regulations relate 
to the regulation of the Craft as a whole. The 
formation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717 is 
considered to be the genesis of Freemasonry as we 
know it today. Canadian and American Masonry 
began with Lodges which received their Warrants 
from the Grand Lodge of England. When these 
Canadian and American lodges formed their own 
Grand Lodges they naturally incorporated into their 
Constitutions the Ancient Charges and General 
Re gulations mutatis mutandis. 

The 39th Article in the General Regulations 
provides that every Grand Lodge has the inherent 
power and authority to make new regulations 
provided always that the Old Landmarks be carefully 
preserved, thus the Ancient Charges and General 
Re gulations form part of the written law of Free- 
masonry. Many sections of the General Regulations 
have been changed by various Grand Lodges to meet 
local conditions. It may, however, be an axiom of 
Masonic Law that in jurisdictions where these 
regulations have not been formally or implicitly 
repealed by subsequent, enactments, that the General 
Re gulations still apply. The Book of Constitution of 
the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of 
Ontario contains the Ancient Charges. 

In October, 1855 forty-One Lodges assembled at 
Hamilton, Ontario and decided to form an indepen- 
dent Grand Lodge of Canada. One of the most 
important matters was the framing of a Constitution. 
One of the first resolutions passed was that the 


proceedings were to be conducted according to the 
rules ancL regulations of The United Grand Lodge of 
England. The Committee charged with the 

responsibility of drafting the Constitution 
recommended the adoption mutatis mutandis of the 
constitution of the United Grand Lodge of England 
as the Constitution of The grand Lodge of Canada. 
This was only a provisional constitution as a 
committee was formed to revise and amend it. At the 
Annual Communication in .k856 it was debated, 
adopted and ordered to be printed. 

Any constitution requires amendment from time 
to time for clarification and to meet changing 
circumstances. Our Constitution was reviewed and 
revised in 1864, 1887 and 1905. Another very 
intensive review of the Book of Constitution was 
begun in 1972 and two drafts of the amendments 
were circulated to the Constituent Lodges. Finally, at 
the Annual Communication in 1979, the amended 
Constitution was adopted. Since that date there have 
been several amendments. 

Naturally a Constitution cannot be an all- 
encompassing document to cover all matters which 
arise in the day to day operation of a Grand Lodge. 
The Grand Master is called upon from time to time 
to make decisions based upon the facts before him 
and the Book of Constitution as he interprets it. 
These are called in Masonic jurisprudence Rulings of 
Grand Masters . These rulings, upon confirmation by 
Grand Lodge at its Annual Communication, form part 
of the jurisprudence of the Grand Jurisdiction. From 
time to time. Grand Lodge has also adopted certain 
resolutions that affect a certain Lodge or group of 
Lodges. An example would be dealing with concurrent 
jurisdiction. These resolutions also form part of the 
jurisprudence of the Grand Jurisdiction. There was a 
vast proliferation of these Rulings and Resolutions 
which until 1875 only appeared in The Proceedings . 
At this time, Rt.Wor.Bro. Otto Klotz extracted these 
from The Proceeding s and compiled them into Rules 


and Resolutions of Grand Lodge . On four separate 
occasions these Joules and Resolutions have been 
revised and edited. ^ 

From time to time there were Rulings of Grand 
Masters which were irreconcilable. Upon a compila- 
tion and revision of the Rulings where this situation 
arose, the Committee would select the ruling which 
it considered the best. At the time of the revision 
any Ruling relating to a local Lodge and not 
affecting the Craft in general would be deleted. At 
each of these revisions, the selection of the Rulings 
was confirmed by Grand Lodge at its Annual 
Communication and ordered to be printed. These 
Rulings thus have the force and effect of the law of 
Grand Lodge. In 1920, in the Preface to the Rulings 
of Grand Masters . Rt. Wor. Bro. Logan, Grand 
Secretary, observed: "Theoretically, a Grand Master's 
ruling or judicial decision ranks in authority next 
below that of the Constitution on a par with the 
by-laws and regulations of Grand Lodge, especially if 
such decision is confirmed by Grand Lodge and not 
afterwards reversed." When the last major revision 
was made to the Book of Constitution in 1979, the 
Committee carefully studied the Rulings of Grand 
Masters segregating them into four distinct groups: 

a) those that now served as rules of procedure; 

b) those that covered a general principle; 

c) those that applied to very specific cases; and 


d) those that no longer seemed relevant. 

In general the Rulings which fall into category 
A and B form part of the Book of Constitution . 
Those in category C and D would be amended or 
deleted entirely. Since 1979 in Ontario all Rulings of 
the Grand Master are valid only until the next 
Annual Communication of Grand Lodge. If they are 
approved at the Annual Communication they are 
incorporated into a revision of the Book of Constitu- 


don, if not, they are no longer of any force or 
effect, (see S-72 Book of Constitution). In the 
Preface to Rulings of Grand Masters . Rt. Wor. Bro. 
Logan, when referring to a conflict in Masonic legal 
authority, stated: "In general, when Masonic laws 
conflict, their authority ranks in the following order: 
1. Landmarks 2. Constitution of Grand Lodge 3. 
By-laws and Regulations of Grand Lodge 4. Lodge 
By-laws 5. The changeable part of the unwritten 
laws. Where two laws, both belonging to the same 
one of these five classes, are opposed or contradic- 
tory to each other, the one enacted last prevails." 
Since Rulings of Grand Masters, if approved and if 
recommended became an amendment to the Book of 
Constitution , it is no longer practical, at least in 
Ontario, to consider where these Rulings rank in 
authority. It may, however, prove useful in attempt- 
ing to place an interpretation upon a section of the 
Book of Constitution or when considering the 
jurisprudence of other Grand Jurisdictions. 

The last source of the Written Law of Masonic 
Jurisprudence and the one most familiar to most 
Masons, is the by-laws of the constituent Lodges. It 
is sufficient to state that they apply to the partic- 
ular Lodge and are designed for the day to day 
operation of the Lodge. These by-laws regulate inter 
alia the time and date of Lodge meeting and annual 
dues. In order to maintain some control and a degree 
of uniformity among Lodges, these by-laws are of no 
force or effect until they are approved by the Grand 


Having considered the sources of Masonic 
Jurisprudence we must now examine how that 
jurisprudence is interpreted and applied within a 
Grand Lodge and between Grand Lodges. Considera- 
tion must also be given to the consequences of the 
breach of Masonic Law. 


How are the Landmarks applied in Masonic 
Jurisprudence? In the Ritual the Entered Apprentice 
is told that his fidelity must be exemplified by a 
strict observance of the Constitutions of the 
Fraternity and by adhering to the Ancient Landmarks 
of the Order. The Fellow craft is told that he may 
offer his opinions under the superintendence of an 
experienced Master who will guard the Landmarks 
against encroachment. The Master Mason is enjoined 
to preserve the Landmarks sacred and inviolable. The 
Master-Elect at Installation promises that he will not 
permit or suffer any deviation from the Ancient 
Landmarks. The Junior Deacon in Kipling's poem My 
Old Mother Lodge Back Home said "We knew the 
Ancient Landmarks and kep'em to a hair." 

What happens when a Freemason does not 
adhere to an Ancient Landmark? In the Book of 
Constitution S-410 there is enumerated a list of 
Masonic offenses. Among them is the offense "To 
violate any of the several obligations, other injunc- 
tions of the ritual or any of the Landmarks of 
Masonry." By violating a Landmark one commits a 
Masonic offense and is subject to a Masonic trial. If 
found guilty the Freemason is subject to Masonic 
punishment. The improper revelation of any of the 
secrets of the various degrees is considered a 
heinous Masonic crime. 

The belief in the existence of a Supreme Being 
is a Landmark of Masonry and, therefore, to profess 
atheism is a violation of a Landmark. This violation 
is subject to a Masonic charge and trial. If found 
guilty at trial, the Freemason will receive Masonic 
punishment. A Freemason may also be charged with a 
Masonic offense if he transgresses one of the 
Ancient Charges. An example of this is the "bringing 
of private piques and quarrels into the Lodge". An 
offense of this nature does not affect the public at 
large, but it does disturb the peace and harmony 
which is expected to exist within the Fraternity. The 
revelation of the Secrets and the bringing of piques 


and quarrels into the Lodge would bring the Mason 
into disrespect by all worthy Masons, but it would 
not be of any consequence to the worid at large. 
Less serious situations can be amicably settled in the 
true spirit of the Craft without recourse to the very 
serious consequences of a Masonic trial and punish- 

In discussing Masonic Trials in 1872, Rt. Wor. 
Bro. J.K. Kerr noted: "In general terms, it may be 
said that every violation by a Mason of his Masonic 
covenant or obligations, or of the established laws, 
usages and customs of the order, - every violation of 
the moral law and every violation of the laws of the 
land involving moral turpitude, is a Masonic offence." 
He went on to say, "Masonic tribunals do not 
assume to adjust mere legal rights - pecuniary or 
otherwise; nor do they take cognizance of difficulties 
of a legal character growing out of business transac- 
tions between brethren, or breaches of contract or 
agreement between one Mason and another, unless 
the circumstances disclose unmistakable fraud, or 
moral turpitude on the part of the offender." 

In Masonic Jurisprudence every offense is a 
crime because in every violation of Masonic law 
there is not only sometimes an infringement of the 
rights of an individual, but always super-imposed 
upon this "a breach and violation of public rights 
and duties which affect the whole community [of the 
Order] considered as a community." This is the very 
definition nf a crime given by Sir William 
Blackstone. And further Mackey states "And hence 

too, in view of the public injury that every Mason 
inflicts upon the Masonic community, when he 
transgresses the municipal law, we arrive at the 
principle that all penal offenses are crimes in 
Freemasonry: That is to say that all private wrongs 
to the individual are public wrongs to the order".^ 

It may appear at first glance that if a Free- 
mason is punished once by the Courts of the land, 


for an offense which he committed, it would be 
grossly unfair and unjust that he be punished again 
for the same offense. When a Freemason transgresses 
the law of the land he also commits a Masonic 
crime, for by committing the wrongful act he not 
only transgresses the Masonic law of obedience to 
the laws of the country in which he resides, but he 
also brings "shame upon the Craft" for which he may 
also be punished. It is a settled axiom of Masonic 
law that every offense which a Freemason commits is 
an injury to the whole Fraternity. If nothing else, 
the bad conduct of ^- single member reflects discredit 
on the whole institution. '^ 

That which has been written above applies to 
transgressions of the law which are of an infamous 
and ignominious nature and a breach of the moral 
law. There may be infractions of the law where the 
breach is not contrary to the moral law. For exam- 
ple, a breach of the rules of the road in a motor 
vehicle statute, or the breach of game and fish 
regulations. These infractions are not such as would 
cause the offender to lose his reputation and 
consequently bring the Craft into disrepute. 

It is not the direction of this paper to examine 
in detail the intricate nature of a Masonic trial; that 
is far beyond its present scope. It will be sufficient 
to state that after a finding of guilty in a Masonic 
trial in Ontario the punishment can only occur after 
the punishment has been confirmed or varied by the 
Committee on Grievances and Appeals as set out in 
S-423 of the Book of Constitution . 

The object of all punishment is two-fold: to 
vindicate the majesty of the law and to prevent 
future violations of the law. But in Masonic jurispru- 
dence another element is added^^that the character 
of the institution may remain unsullied.^^ 

Reprimand is the least severe in the scale of 
Masonic Punishment. It is administered at a time and 


place as directed by the Grand Master and is 
provided for in S-423(d) of the Book of Constitution . 
Mackey observes that the punishment of reprimand 
consists in the fact that the reprimand has been 
ordered and not in the uncourteous terms with which 
the reprimand may be clothed. After a finding of 
guilt the punishment ordered may be a suspension 
from the lodge. This suspension may be for either an 
indefinite period, or for a definite term of not less 
than three months and not more than three years as 
provided in section 423(a) i-ii of the Book of 
Constitution . Expulsion is a most serious punishment 
and is only carried out after the Committee on 
Grievances and Appeals has given most careful 
deliberation to the matter. 

Having considered Masonic offenses and the 
breach of landmarks and regulations as they affect 
individual Masons, it is now necessary to consider 
the breach of landmarks and other Masonic law 
between Grand Lodges. The first question which 
arises is how does one Grand Lodge know what 
another Grand Lodge is doing. There is much inter 
visitation between Grand Masters and Grand Lodges. 
Indeed, each year in the Proceedings our Grand 
Master enumerates the Grand Lodges which he or his 
representative have visited. There is also an 
enumeration of the Grand Masters or their represen- 
tatives who visit our Grand Lodge. In addition there 
is the Conference of Grand Masters of Masons in 
North America and the Conference of Grand Masters 
of Canada where ideas are interchanged and discuss- 
ed. These conferences are a link between Grand 
Lodges enabling them to warn each other of errors 
or pitfalls which are to be avoided. In addition there 
is in each Grand Lodge a committee charged with 
the responsibility of reviewing Proceedings from 
other Grand Lodges with which they maintain 
fraternal relations. 

In Ontario the committee is called the 
Committee on Fraternal Correspondence and its 


mandate is set out in S-136 of the Book of Constitu- 
tion . Mackay had this to say about these committees: 
"The Committees on Correspondence are the links 
which bind the Grand Lodges into one united whole 
in the pursuit of knowledge; they are the guardians 
appointed by their respective bodies to inform their 
constituents what has been the progress of the 
Institution for the past year - to warn them of the 
errors in discipline or in Masonic science which they 
may suppose to have been committed - and to 
suggest the best method ^by which these errors may 
be avoided or amended.' Mackey pointed out that 
Proceedings of Grand Lodges are not printed for 
wide distribution and it is impossible for large 
numbers of members of the Craft to be aware of 
their contents. Grand Masters and Grand Lodges are 
not always correct and Mackey opined that it was 
part of the duty of the committees to^gpoint out 
errors and warn their own constituency of pitfalls.^ 

What happens if a Grand Lodge violates a 
Landmark and is not prepared to rectify the situa- 
tion? The most serious consequence is the refusal to 
recognize or the withdrawal of recognition by other 
Grand Lodges. An example of this is the Grand 
Orient of France. Both Mackey and Pound agree that 
the existence of a "Book of Law" forms an indis- 
putable part of the furniture of a Lodge and is a 
Landmark. The Grand Orient of France uses a blank 
book called the "White Book" in place of the V.O.S.L. 
The existence of the "Book of Law" or the V.O.S.L is 
one of the prerequisites for recognition by the 
Conference of Grand Masters of Masons of North 
America. Because the Grand Orient of France does 
not meet this requirement it is not recognized by the 
Grand ^Lodge of Canada in the Province of 
Ontario. Where recognition is withdrawn there 

is a complete end of fraternal contact and Grand 
Representatives are withdrawn. To hold Masonic 
communication with a member of such a Grand Lodge 
(a clandestine MascMi) or a Lodge, a Mason is guilty 
of a Masonic offense. "^^ 


The Grand Master also has jurisdiction to 
revoke or suspend the Warrant of a Lodge under his 
jurisdiction which has transgressed the Masonic law. 
This provision is found in S-179 of the Book of 
Constitution and is one of the Grand Master's 
important prerogatives. In keeping with the whole 
spirit of Freemasonry this is not done arbitrarily, 
but only upon notice to the Lodge and only after the 
Lodge has had the opportunity to show cause why 
the revocation should not be ordered. By the very 
nature and spirit of the institution this is not a 
situation which would arise often. From time to time 
there have been infringements by a Lodge into the 
jurisdiction of another Grand Lodge. This has 
occurred, for example, through the improper initia- 
tion of a Brother. These infringements are matters 
which are resolved amicably between Grand Lodges in 
the true spirit of the Craft and the offending Lodge 
has been admonished by its own Grand Lodge. 


Because of the universality of Freemasonry 
whose branches are spread over the four divisions of 
the globe there is an element of international law in 
Masonic Jurisprudence. As between nations there is a 
body of the law known as public international law 
which governs relations between states and settles 
international disputes. Indeed there is the Interna- 
tional Court of Justice, at the Hague, the Nether- 
lands, where these matters are adjudicated upon. 
There is also the United Nations which may be 
likened to a form of world government. 

There is no International Masonic Organization 
in the world with the authority, either expressed or 
implied, to control Grand Lodges. There are Con- 
ferences of Grand Masters in North America, Canada 
and Australia but they only have power to discuss 
and recommend and anything done by these Con- 
ferences is not binding on any Grand Lodge. Every 
regular Grand Lodge is a sovereign body owing 


allegiance to no other Masonic ^ body, however styled, 
nor to any other Grand Lodge. There seems to be 
perhaps not a law or landmark but an international 
convention, that there ^bt at least three Lodges to 
form a Grand Lodge. Indeed this is one of the 
criteria for recognition used by the Conference of 
Grand Masters of Masons in North America and 
consequently, by the^ <Grand Lodge of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario. There is also the doctrine of 
comprehensive jurisdiction which means that on the 
formation of a new Grand Lodge in any territory, all 
Lodges in thai territory must be members of that 
Grand Lodge. Exclusive jurisdiction is also used 
when discussing the recognition of Grand Lodges. 
This means that there ^can only be one Grand Lodge 
in any given territory. "^^ In his paper*^^ Bro. Draffen 
discusses the recognition of the Grand Lodge of 
Alaska which is now recognized.±)y the Grand Lodge 
of Canada in the Province of Ontario. 

The proposition that comprehensive and exclus- 
ive jurisdiction are international conventions and not 
Landmarks is demonstrated by the fact that there 
are two lodges in Quebec - St. Paul's 374 and St. 
George's 440 in Montreal and one in Halifax, Nova 
Scotia - Royal Standard 398 - which still hold 
English warrants. In addition there are approximately 
seventy lodges in India, twenty-five in New Zealand 
and four in Australia with similar warrants. Each of 
these countries has its own Grand Lodge. 

These Lodges hold their English warrants due to 
a historical anomaly. The usual procedure in such 
cases is that the older Grand Lodge undertakes not 
to issue new warrants while refusing to force its 
constituent lodges to join the new Grand Lodge. 

As different governments of the world recognize 
each other and exchange representatives or ambass- 
adors so do Grand Lodges recognize each other and 
exchange Grand Representatives. The earliest 
recognition of the practice was in 1772 when the 


Grand Lodge of England and The Ancients resolved 
that there should be "constant correspondence 
betwixt them". "^ The Book of Constitution , section 
80 provides for the appointment of Grand Represen- 

To illustrate the degree of diplomacy and the 
desire to recognize the sovereignty of each Grand 
Lodge reference can be made to a proposed amend- 
ment to section 80 of the Book of Constitution of 
our Grand Lodge. In 1981 it was proposed to amend 
that section by limiting the Grand Representatives' 
term to six years. This proposed amendment was 
considered by the Committee on Constitution and 
Jurisprudence and the Board of General Purposes. 
Since the members were of the opinion that the 
proposed amendment would be tantamount to dictat- 
ing to another Grand Lodge the terms of representa- 
tion of its representative it ^ was not approved as an 
amendment to the Constitution. -^ 


This paper is intended to be a brief introduc- 
tion to the mysteries and intricacies of Masonic 
Jurisprudence. It is not a subject in which everyone 
is interested but it is one which touches one's career 
in Masonry from the time an application is submitted 
through the various degrees, progressing through the 
chairs to the office of Worshipful Master as well as 
one's conduct as a Mason in the community. It is 
hoped that this brief exposure to Masonic Jurispru- 
dence will whet the interest of the reader and direct 
him to further his research into the hidden mysteries 
of the science. 


1) Black's Law Dictionary : 5th Edition St. Paul, 

Minnesota, West Publishing Co. 1979. 


2) Roscoe Pound: Masonic Writings and Addresses 
New York, Mcoy, 1953 pages 262-263 

3) Bernard E. Jones: Freemasons' Guide and 
Compendium London: Harrop, 1956 page 332. 

4) Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario: Beyond the Pillars Hamilton: 
Masonic Holdings, 1973 pages 57-58. 

5) Pound: pages 242 & 286 

6) Ibid: page 257 

7) Albert Mackey: Jurisprudence of Freemasonry 
Richmond, Virginia: Macoy, 1980 pages 2 to 19 

8) Pound: page 257 

9) Grand Lodge: Beyond the Pillars page 58 

10) Ibid: page 62 

10a) Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario: Proceedings 1976 pages 55 to 57 
and 124 

1 1) Grand Lodge: Beyond the Pillars page 58 

12) Pound: pages 253 and 254 

13) Ibid: page 257 

14) Ibid: pages 339 to 362 

15) Ibid: page 320 

16) MacKey: page 16 

16a) Chalmers I Paton: Freemasonry and its Jurispru- 
dence London: Reeves & Turner, 1872 pages 20-21 


17) Mackey: page 48 

18) Heritage Lodge #730 Proceedings 1979 page 8 

19) Ibid: page 9 

20) Ibid: page 12 

21) Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario: Whence Come We ? Hamilton: 
Masonic Holdings, 1980 page 178 

22) Ibid: page 181 

23) Mackey: page 350 

24) Ibid: pages 350-351 

25) Ibid: pages 355 & 357; Paton, pages 337 ct seq. 

26) Mackey: page 360 

27) Ibid: page 363 

28) Ibid: page 345 

29) Ibid: page 346 

30) Heritage Lodge #730 G.R.C.: Proceeding s Vol. 6 
No. 3 page 1 1 

31) Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario: A History of the Grand Lodg e 

of Canada in the Province of Ontario 1855-1955. 

Toronto: McCallum Press 1955 page 141 

32) Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario: Constitution S410-1 

33) Grand Lodge: A History of Grand Lodg e pages 
146 to 148 

34) Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076 


United Grand lodge of England - Ars Ouatuor 
Coronatorum Volume 88, page 85 

35) Ibid: page 86 

36) Heritage Lodge #730 Proceedings page 12 

37) Quatuor Coronati Lodge Ars Ouatuor 
Coronatorum page 86 

38) Ibid: page 87 

39) Ibid: page 86 

40) Heritage Lodge #730 Proceedings Volume 6, 
Number 3 page 18 

41) Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario: Proceedings 1981 page 81 

42) Quatuor Coronati Lodge: Ars Ouatuor 
Coronatorum Volume 88 page 85 

43) Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the 
Province of Ontario: The Committee on Masonic 
Education - Newsletter Vol. 2 No. 2 page 7 


Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province 
of Ontario: A History of the Grand Lodge of Canada 
in the Province of Ontario 1855-1955 
Toronto: McCallum Press, 1955 

Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province 
of Ontario: Beyond the Pillars 
Hamilton: Masonic Holdings, 1973 

Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province 
of Ontario: Whence come We ? 
Hamilton: Masonic Holdings, 1980 


Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the Province 
of Ontario: Proceedings 1976 and 1981 

Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the PRovince 
of Ontario: The Committee on Masonic Education - 
Newsletter Volume 2 

Heritage Lodge #730 G.R.C. Proceedings 1979 

Heritage Lodge #730 G.R.C. Proceedings Vol. 6 No. 3 

Jones, Bernard E.: Freemasons' Guide and Compen- 
dium London: Harrop, 1956 

Mackey, Albert: Jurisprudence of Freemasonry 
Richmond, Virginia: Macoy, 1980 

Paton, Chalmers I: Freemasonry and its Jurisprudence 
London: Reeves & Turner, 1872 

Pound, Roscoe: Masonic Writings and Speeches New 
York: Macoy, 1953 

Robertson, Henry: A Digest of Masonic Jurisprudence 
Toronto: Hunter Rose, 1881 

Quatuor Coronati: Lodge No. 2076 United Grand 
Lodge of England: Ars Quatuor Coronatorum Volume 
88, 1975 


Robert T. Runciman 



March 16, 1988 


R.W.Bro. Robert T. Runciman 


"Introduction to Masonic Jurisprudence" 

THE FIRST REVIEW - was prepared by R.W. Bro. H. 
Allan Leal, P.G.S.W., Past Master of Ionic Lodge, 
No.25, Toronto District 3, and a Member of the 
Heritage Lodge. The review was read in lodge by 
R.W.Bro. Jack Pos. 

Worshipful Master and Brethren: 

Rt. Wor. Bro. Robert T. Runciman has written, 
in relatively brief compass, a highly readable and 
attractive piece on the components of masonic law 
and regulation, how that law is interpreted and 
applied within the constituent lodges, by grand Lodge 
and between Grand Lodges both nationally and inter- 
nationally. That is not an easy task to perform 
without inviting disagreement, particularly amongst 
lawyers. With the greatest respect, I find it easy to 
admire and difficult to disagree seriously with any- 
thing in the paper. 

That may be attributed in large part to the fact 
that the learned author has invoked in aid one of 
the most scholarly and prolific jurisprudential writers 
in the person of the late Roscoe Pound of the Law 
School of Harvard University. It was my great priv- 
ilege to meet Dean Pound when I was doing my 
graduate work at Harvard. He was still fairly spry 
and full of work, although very advanced in years. 
There was only one good eye left between his sec- 
retary of long standing and himself, so the production 
had fallen off a little. Pound to me was quite a 
figure, wearing a green eye shade and the black 


cloth cuffs which telegraphers used to wear in the 
golden age of steam railroading. He was a mason, of 
course, and an illustrious one, and it is an entirely 
happy circumstance that he turned his great knowl- 
edge and abilities as a jurisprudential scholar and 
writer to masonic jurisprudence. 

It is interesting, as a definitional matter, that, 
in Canada, where two legal systems pertain in two 
different languages, an initial obstacle to understand- 
ing exists with respect to what is meant by the term 
jurisprudence. In the English language and the comm- 
on law, it means the philosophy and the science of 
law, its content, its interpretation, its purpose and 
its application. As our author points out, it is some- 
times used to mean, more narrowly, the body of 
doctrine laid down by judicial decision as one would 
speak of the jurisprudence under our Charter of 
Rights and Freedoms meaning the body of law in the 
decided cases under the Charter involving its interp- 
retation and application. In the French language and 
the civil law, the term jurisprudence is confined to 
the latter meaning. It is used solely to define the 
decisional law on the Civil Code as interpreted and 
applied by the judges. In addition, of course, the 
term jurisprudence in the French language is given 
the characteristic flair of emphasizing the last 
syllable and pronouncing it as a French nasal vowel. 

In dealing with the content and concern of 
jurisprudence, the author states that it "is more a 
formal than material science. It has no direct concern 
with questions of moral or political policy, for they 
fall under the province of ethics and legislation". 
This may well be true of some schools of jurispru- 
dence, such as the positivists. I hope that it is 
accepted today that the school of positivism has 
been largely discredited. Leading jurisprudential 
writers like H.A.L. Hart and Lord Devlin in England 
and Lon L. Fuller in the United States have devoted 
their lives to the study and presentation of the 
relation of law and morals in society. There is no 


question that law is or seeks to reflect moral prin- 
ciples. This has been accepted for generations. What 
is still debated is the source of the law's morality. 
To Hegel it was the "Grundnorm", to Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, a brooding omnipresence in the sky, to 
Thomas Aquinas it was divinely inspired, and to 
Fuller it was self-generated. But again, it is the 
source of the morality and not its presence that is 
the subject of debate. 

The subject of morality is pervasive in masonic 
jurisprudence and of special significance in the 
prescriptions or rules concerning masonic conduct 
and the code of masonic offenses. These rules are 
set out in our Book of Constitution as are the rules 
respecting the trials and punishment for commission 
of masonic offenses. With respect, I question the 
utility and the essential fairness of classifying, as 
the author of our paper does, every masonic offence 
as a crime. It is certainly true that conduct of a 
criminal or quasi-criminal nature involving moral 
turpitude is a masonic offence. This is clear from 
section 410(m) of the Constitution. But it is quite 
another thing to suggest that a breach of every 
regulatory provision, no matter how trivial, is or 
should be classified as a crime. The Book of Constitu- 
tion refers to all transgressions as masonic offenses 
and it would be both constitutionally appropriate and 
less draconic to retain this nomenclature. 

As a mason and a lawyer it was a privilege and 
a pleasure to read the views of someone similarly 
qualified on the important subject of masonic 
jurisprudence. I commend it to my brethren for a 
statement, easily manageable at one sitting, of the 
basics of how we are governed. 

THE SECOND REVffiW - was prepared by R.W. Bro. 
George F.W. Inrig, P.G.R., Past Master of Faithful 
Brethren Lodge, No.77, Lindsay, and a member of the 
Heritage Lodge. 


Worshipful Master and Brethren: 

A certain gentleman from Newfoundland applied 
for the position of Police Constable in his home 
town. He appeared before the Police Commission to 
establish his qualifications. He was advised that the 
examination would cover several topics. The first 
question was a "Common Knowledge" matter: How 
many days of the week begin with a "T" and what 
are they? "Dis takes a pile of tinkin" He said and 
He thought and thought. After a while, He said: 
"There be two days of the week that begins with a 
"T" and they be "Today" and "Tomorrow" ". His 
answer was considered ingenious and He was allowed 
to proceed. The second question was "Mathematical": 
How many seconds are there in a year? Again He 
thought and thought and borrowed a pencil and 
paper to do His calculations. Finally, He said: "There 
be twelve seconds in a year". Asked to explain He 
said: "There be the second of January, the second of 
February, the second of March and so on". The third 
question was "Historical": "Who killed Abraham 
Lincoln?". "Dis also takes a pile of tinkin" He said 
and He thought and thought. After some time, it was 
suggested that He could retire to the local library to 
gain some assistance and return with the answer. On 
His way to the library. He met a friend who enquired 
if He had been successful in obtaining the job. "I 
tink I have, they's got me on a murder case already". 

As a former Law Professor, one of my concerns 
in teaching a course in "Commercial Law" to the 
commerce students at Dalhousie University was that 
I not impart a "Litde Learning" for "A little learning 
is a dangerous thing" and the Dean of Law was 
concerned that the Commerce students, having had 
one course on Commercial Law, would consider 
themselves lawyers. I don't know whether the Dean 
was concerned that they would not seek professional 
advice or that some poor lawyer might be deprived 
of his fees. 


In speaking to The Heritage Lodge about Masonic 
Jurisprudence, Right Worshipful Brother, His Honour, 
Bob Runciman has imparted a "Little Learning" to the 
brethren and hopefully this has not convinced the 
brethren that they are now authorities on "Masonic 
Jurisprudence". We have, in our Grand Jurisdiction, 
adequate brethren, in the persons of certain Past 
District Deputy Grand Masters, who, having looked 
at the constitution, fulfil that role. 

Brother Runciman has undertaken a large task. 
He has narrowed it somewhat by proclaiming that He 
is presenting "An Introduction to Masonic Jurispru- 
dence" and has stated his aim to be "To kindle the 
reader's interest and motivate him to extend his 

He has addressed the various areas or sources 
of regulation contributing to Masonic Jurisprudence. 
One area that he has not pursued in this paper, and 
this is not a criticism, since to do so would have 
been to extend the length of this paper, is the area 
in which the public courts have ruled on masonic 
matters. The Grand Lodge of Canada in The Province 
of Ontario has been singularly fortunate in not 
having developed a body of Masonic Jurisprudence 
from the public courts of Ontario, and I know of no 
cases in the other Grand Jurisdictions in Canada. Our 
Sister Grand Jurisdictions south of the border have 
not been so fortunate and there are volumes of cases 
that have been decided involving Masons, Masonic 
Trusts and properties, and the Grand Lodges of 
several Masonic Jurisdictions. Whether our Grand 
Lodge will remain so fortunate inview of the expand- 
ing application of human rights and the interpretation 
of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms remains to be 
seen. The participation of the public courts in Mas- 
onic Jurisprudence may be an area that The Heritage 
Lodge may wish to research on a future occasion. 

To my knowledge, we do not have a body of 
experts in Masonic Jurisprudence. The Committee on 


Grievances and Appeals of the Grand Lodge is 
composed of Judges, Lawyers and Past Grand Masters. 
The Past Grand Masters are a very knowledgeable 
group and it has been my observation that they are 
a very fair-minded body, the Judges and Lawyers on 
the committee may not be knowledgeable about 
specific Masonic Jurisprudence, but they bring to the 
Committee their professionalism and the conservatism 
of the Legal Profession. 

Brother Runciman dealt briefly with the matter 
of masonic trials. Our masonic trials have dealt with 
specific offenses and the rulings have not formulated 
any principles which have had any profound effect 
on our Jurisprudence. It is, however, a potential 
source for research. 

As a former Chairman of the Committee on 
Grievances and Appeals, I have cautioned the 
committee and the Grand Lodge against holding 
masonic trials. Some method to rid the Craft of 
wayward members should be devised rather than the 
holding of trials within the Lodge Room by brethren 
whose knowledge of court procedure and the receipt 
of evidence is gleaned from the television. 

Masonic trials are divisive and more often than 
not the conclusion, whatever it may be, tends to 
weaken masonry rather than strengthen it. 

Brother Runciman is to be congratulated on his 
paper. He has completed substantial research in its 
preparation and has presented it in a way that 
should prove interesting to the reader. His compar- 
ison of the development of masonic jurisprudence to 
that of the English Common Law is appropriate. He 
has, in my opinion, created the motivation for the 
brethren to extend their research. 



Rt. Rev. William Charles White 

Bishop of Honan 

Dr. William Charles White 

Professor of Chinese Studies University of Toronto 

Director Far Eastern Collection 

Royal Ontario Museum 

R. W. Bro. William Charles White 

Past Grand Chaplain 

Grand Lodge A.F.& A.M. of Canada 

in the Province of Ontario 


R. W. Bro. John W. Auckland 
Charter Member of the Heritage Lodge No. 730 

William Charles White, a distinguished Mason, 
had two outstanding careers; first as a missionary in 
China and secondly as a collector and curator of the 
western worlds greatest collection of Chinese 

He was bom at Ivy Bridge, accompanied by his 
mother, a brother and two sisters emigrated to 
Canada where they joined his father who had prev- 
iously came to this country and settled in 
Norwood, a small country village about twenty-five 
miles east of Peterborough. Here his father, a stone 
mason, had built a substantial house for the family; 
With solid brick walls, eighteen inches thick, a 

*Paper presented at the Regular Meeting of The 
Heritage Lodge held in the Masonic Lodge Rooms, 
Sault St. Marie, Saturday, May 14, 1988. 


cottage roof and spacious veranda. It still stands like 
a sentinel guarding the western entrance to the 

In the 1880's Norwood possessed few attractions 
of little challenge to boys except the exploration of 
the countryside. There were no cinemas, no bowling 
alleys, no cars, no radios or televisions. They got 
together for games such as football, baseball or 

On Sunday there was little alternative but to 
attend church. Norwood had a number of churches; 
Church of England, Methodist, Presbyterian, Roman 
Catholic, Baptist and churches of smaller denomina- 

It was in the Church of England, Christ Church 
in Norwood, a Church built in 1860 that William 
White preached his first sermon on December 30th, 
1894. Afterwards he made the following entry in his 

"Tonight I preached for the first time in 
Norwood. (Rev. 3:20). There was a fair turnout. It was 
awful. The hardest time I ever had. When I knelt 
down in the pulpit I was out of sight completely. I 
felt like staying there! I received the message, "Fear 
not and go" but I did fear and shake just the same. 
Ma was at the church and Mrs. Williams. They said I 
got through all right but ?" 

William White's parents professed allegiance to 
the Church of England although, they rarely attended 
services on more than special occasions such as 
Christmas, Easter, Thanksgiving, they remained strict 
in their insistence that all their children be present 
at church every Sunday. The family did not observe 
the institution of family prayer to their children and 
saw that they were said each night, or did they 
allow any recreation on Sunday. 


Close family bonds existed amongst most of the 
members of the White family. William, however, did 
not appear to have shared this relationship to the 
same extent as the younger members of the family. 
Although he found it hard to relate to members of 
his family, while attending high school, he became 
close friends with Edward Pitt Cuffe, a young 
business man who had employed him as after school 

Edward Cuffe was only eight years older than 
William. He had acquired a store when his father 
dies. He had wanted to enter the Ministry but because 
of his business liabilities he had been denied an 
education. He became a lay reader in Norwood's 
Christ Church and he had an influence on William in 
his choosing the Ministry for his life's work. In later 
years, whenever William White visited Norwood, he 
was always entertained by the Cuffe 's in their large 
house on Queen Street. 

After he finished High School, William White 
joined the Y.M.C.A. in Kingston as an assistant 
secretary. While in Kingston, he was one of the 
original members of a group formed "To Protect the 
Imposed Authority of Leadership of a Christian 
Union". This group consisted of Church Goers of 
various denominations and they called themselves 
"The Kickers Club". At various times the Club 
contained a Japanese, who later became Vice-chair- 
man of the Board of Tokyo University, four who 
became medical doctors, four who became leaders in 
the educational field, one who was the engineer who 
designed the Hotel Frontenac, the BAnk of Commerce 
Building in Toronto and the Royal York Hotel and 
one who became the Bishop of Honan. 

While in Kingston, William White was a member 
of the Militia Regiment Princess Lx)uise's Own Rifles. 
He was greatly honoured when the regiment was 
selected to supply the Guard of Honour at Sir John 
A. MacDonald's Funeral Service from the St. George 


Cathedral in Kingston. The whole White family had 
been a staunch supporter of Sir John and had admired 
him greatly as Prime Minister. 

It was not until William White left Kingston and 
became the Secretary of the Y.M.C.A. in Ottawa that 
he kept a diary. It is from his diaries that we find 
out what kind of person he was. He was by nature 
an active man, an extrovert. At the same time he 
displayed a tendency towards contemplativeness and 
was frequently given to introspection. Prayer, study 
and meditation occupied an important place in his 
daily life. He believed that if he kept God's will, 
nothing could prevail against him. 

Besides the insight into William White's religious 
life to be drawn from his diaries, much helpful 
information comes from his Bible. This book, which 
rested on his night table the night he died, was 
given to him when he left Ottawa in March 1892. Its 
pages had turned brown with age and use. Between 
them were bits of heather, four leafed clovers and 
other souvenirs of days long passed. This Bible was 
William White's most treasured possession and was 
his constant companion for over sixty years. 

Many years ago, a Chinese craftsman rebound 
the Bible. At the front and back. White had added 
blank pages and on these he had copied poems and 
quotations which had special meaning to him. Many 
of these poems and quotations formed familiar common 
property for the Christian community. They were 
frequently quoted. Throughout the Bible, familiar 
passages were underlined with comments added in the 
margin. When translation from the original Greek, to 
him, seemed inaccurate he would add his own version. 
At the back of the Bible, White compiled a brief 
accordance, with lists of important subjects, names 
and birthdays of friends he wished to remember. 

It was while carrying out his religious activities 
at the Y.M.C.A. in Ottawa that he found a renewal 
in religion even to the point of ecstasy. His private 


confrontations with God were more often more real 

to him than his association with his colleagues and 

friends. GOD PROTECTED HIM. Later he wrote, "He 
is keeping me wonderful these days." 

Heaven was a certainty to William White. His 
faith, his conviction released in him an inexhaustible 
energy and confidence in his own ability, confidence 
derived from "the authority of the Right". An exub- 
erance accompanied his youthful, relendess curiosity 
throughout his life. At an early age he seemed to 
possess an intuitive insight into the thinking of his 
contemporaries. Few opportunities to challenge his 
companions were passed unheeded. On the first page 
of his diary he wrote, "Had a good square talk on 
spiritual subjects with Mr. Germain". His diary 
contained the phrase "Good Square Talk" frequently. 
Also on the first page of his diary we fmd that he 
had already committed himself to a life motivated by 
religion. There remained little uncertainty about the 
course his life would follow. The mystique of mission- 
ary work touched White and it confirmed in him his 
determination to take the message to foreign lands. 

William White enrolled in theology at Wycliffe 
College in Toronto and after graduation was ordained 
in St. Alban's Cathedral on May 31st, 1896. While at 
College, as well as maintaining a high scholastic 
record, he was very active in sports and other activ- 
ities of the college. He also maintained a very rigor- 
ous schedule of religious activities, preaching, teach- 
ing Sunday School and attending religious meetings. 

While at college he acquired much medical 
knowledge in surgery, dentistry and prescriptions by 
visiting hospitals and the University's Faculty of 
Medicine. He followed medical students into clinics 
and wards and even into morgues to watch post- 
mortems. This knowledge proved very useful to him 
as a missionary because he was often called upon to 
perform surgery, pull teeth and dispense medicines. 


While at college, William White met Annie Rae. 
Before he left for China, they considered marriage 
but the church administration advised against it. So 
on January 21st, 1897, William White sailed for China 
alone. She was to join him the next October in 
China and they were married in the Trinity Cathedral 
in Shanghai. 

He arrived in China after the Boxer Rebellion, 
during which many missionaries had been killed. He 
believed the easiest way to fain confidence with the 
people was to adapt their language, dress and cus- 
toms. He even wore a queue, an artificial one until 
his hair grew long enough so that he could have a 
natural one. He first worked among the lepers in 
Fulien and then was assigned to work among Chinese 
scholars who had hitherto firmly resisted the 
Christian gospel. This work profoundly influenced 
White's life. The Chinese scholars, he stated, "took 
me in as an older brother and treated me handsome- 
ly." He sailed in sampans, organized flood relief and 
dealt with bandits. 

In 1909, William Charles White was consecrated 
a Bishop and was sent to Honan. He was the first 
Bishop of the Anglican church in Canada serving in 
the diocese of Honan consisting of thirty-five million 
persons and covering sixty-eight thousand square 
miles of territory. He remained in Honan until 1934. 
He retired from this position because he was convinc- 
ed that it was in the best interests of the church 
that a native Chinese should be elected Bishop. As a 
Bishop, he displayed a genius for organization that 
resulted in the construction of churches, residence 
schools for boys and girls, an orphanage and a 
hospital. White's philosophy was that the institutions 
built by the missionaries should be staffed and 
operated by the Chinese and complete control should 
be put in their hands as soon as possible. 

It was while he was in Honan Province, that 
White became interested in archaeology. He found 


near Kaifing the historic site of a Jewish Synagogue 
which had been abandoned about 1851. All that 
remained were two large stone tablets and a carved 
stone laver. One was dated 1489. It was known that 
the Emperor Ling Hsing had granted permission to 
the Jews to build a synagogue in 1183. Years later, 
in 1942, he wrote a paper on all of the research he 
had done about the Kaifer Jewish Colony. 

In the 1920's White could sense a change about 
to take place in his career. His work had been done 
well and the Chinese would soon be able to assume 
control over their church and the political unrest 
pointed to the possibility of foreign missionaries no 
longer being allowed in China. In 1924, while on 
furlough. Bishop White met Dr. C.T. Currelly, curator 
of archaeology at the Royal Ontario Museum. Their 
meeting aroused the William White's interest in 
collecting for the museum and during the next ten 
years in Honan his efforts gradually shifted from the 
affairs of the church to the field of Chinese 
archaeology. Through practical experience he became 
an expert in the field of collecting material. Although 
at the time there was some feeling that he had 
abandoned his mission, his contribution to the Royal 
Ontario Museum has been judged outstanding. Thous- 
ands of articles, representing Chinese civilization 
through the ages, were sent to Canada. In the 1930' 
laws restricting exports were passed and the collect- 
ing had to cease, but not before the Royal Ontario 
Museum had accumulated one of the finest collections 
of early Chinese bronzes to be found anywhere 
outside china. 

In 1934 Bishop White returned to Toronto where 
he was appointed as a professor for a course in 
Chinese Archaeology at the University of Toronto 
and a director of the Museum's Far Eastern collec- 
tion. By the early 1940' s he had outlined a complete 
program of Chinese studies for the university, collec- 
ted a staff and established himself as head of a new 
School of Chinese studies. 


In 1946 White returned to Honan to assist in 
the reconstruction of the Canadian Church Mission 
following a ten year period of famine and war. His 
departure from Toronto is described in this way: 

"He was still working in his office late in the 
afternoon: at the 1st minute he hurriedly threw a 
few things into a suitcase. William Todd, the museum's 
preparator, carried his bag to the front door and set 
out to hail a taxi. None was available. The bishop 
rushed into the middle of the street, flagged down a 
passing private car and exclaimed in a loud voice." 
I'm Bishop White, I am on my way to China and I 
haven't much time to catch my train. Please drive 
me quickly to Union Station." The driver, startled 
perhaps and even a little overwhelmed by this formid- 
able announcement, obligingly complied. The Bishop 
was on his way. 

For a year Bishop White worked hard under 
difficult circumstances but by the Spring of 1947, in 
failing health and with the communist armies threa- 
tening he was forced to return to Canada. Before 
leaving he was able to acquire still more treasures 
for the Royal Ontario Museum. 

In 1948 White resigned his positions at the 
university and museum an retired to Fonthill where 
he built a house. It became known as "The House of 
the Bishop" and Bishop White as "The Little Fellow 
With His Collar On Backwards". The White's called 
their home "Honancroft". It situation was not as 
secluded as they wished. Every important Chinese 
visitor to Canada visited Honancroft. 

Bishop White was a prolific writer of articles, 
pamphlets and books on China. Among his books on 
china are: An ALbum of Chinese Bamboo; Bronze 
Culture of Ancient China: Chinese - English Diction- 
ary of Kien-ning Dialect; Among the papers on China 
was one about his research into the Kaifer Jewish 


Colony. A number of his writings can be found in 
the library of the Far Eastern Section of the Royal 
Ontario Museum and in the rare book section of the 
University of Toronto. 

Even in retirement, William White was an active 
person. He arose at 7.30 A.M. and followed a very 
ridged routine. After taking care of his personal 
correspondence he concentrated on his writing until 
1 or 2 A.M. He also travelled extensively through the 
province doing research for his writings and he also 
preached on many occasions helping out in small 
churches that needed a minister to occupy the pulpit 
for special services. 

William Charles White - The Mason 

He was initiated into Masonry in Foochow 
Lodge No. 1912, South China District, which was 
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England. 
This was while he was working with the Lepers in 
Fukien. He was very active in the lodge and was its 
Junior Warden when he was transferred to Honan and 
had to give up the chair. 

William White was very active in the founding 
of the Grand Lodge of China. 

When he returned to Canada, in 1934, he affil- 
iated with the University Lodge No. 496 G.R.C. and 
was Worshipful Master of University Lodge in 1936. 

He was also an affiliated member of Peking 
Lodge and Niagara No. 2 G.R.C. 

While in China, he joined the Scottish Rite and 
was a member of the Ch'ung Te Consistory, Valley of 
Peking, Orient of China, in 1933 he was coroneted 
an Honorary Inspector General 33^ by the Southern 
Jurisdiction U.S.A. On his return to Canada he 
affiliated with the Toronto Lodge of Perfection and 


the Toronto Sovereign Chapter Rose Croix and Moore 
Sovereign Consistory in Hamilton. 

He was a member of the Royal Order of Scot- 
land, joining in 1928. His characteristic was "Observa- 
tion". This was an unusual characteristic for a Priest. 

He was a member of the Royal Order of Scot- 
land, joining in 1928. His characteristic was "Observa- 
tion". This was an unusual characteristic for a Priest. 

He was the Chief Adept of the Ontario College 
of the Masonic Rosicrucian Society. Later he became 
the Chief Adept Emeritus. 

He was the Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge 
of Canada in the Province of Ontario for the year 
1937-38 when M.W.Bro. W.J. Dunlop was Grand Master. 

The fellowship that he found in the Order 
became an important interest to him and in later 
years he found it very useful. Within the rich tapestry 
of Masonic symbolism and ritual he say an abiding 
resemblance to many of the Chinese customs and 
ceremonies he had come to respect and admire. 

He wrote articles relating Masonic Rites to the 
ancient Chinese worship of Heaven Ceremonies. 

The Altar of Heaven, written by White, and 
published in the Grand Lodge Bulletin. In this article, 
he wrote about the "Natural Religion of the Chinese 
and the revealed religion in which his faith believed. 
In natural religion we know something of the worth 
of Justice. Truth, Mercy, Love and Goodness - this is 
God's Moral Law. We also have his revealed law in 
scriptures which is the highest and most spiritual 
and far reaching. We can live by faith with obedience 
to both. 

In 1953, he wrote an article for the New Age 
magazine, a publication of the Southern Jurisdiction 


U.S.A., in which he referred to the long unbroken 
civilization of China, which was etched on a back- 
ground of moral philosophy and symbolic wealth, the 
combination had created China. He wrote, "a sense of 
accuracy in the performance of ceremonial and ritual 
which produced an unsurpassed soil for the rootage 
of Freemasonry". 

Such articles as. The Symbols, The Fourth 
Altar, The Symbolism of the Altar and Heaven, The 
Three Square Mirrors, The Compasses and Square all 
disclosed to him, a close relationship between Chinese 
worship and Masonic liturgy. 

In his article, Chinese Masonry, he begins, "In 
its myths and legends, its proverbs and precepts, its 
symbols and ceremonies, China manifests a basic 
Masonic Philosophy which far outreaches that of any 
other nation, be it ancient or modem, western or 

Long before the time of Confucius (born 551 
B.C.) there existed a complex of philosophical systems 
based on various symbolisms such as the Great 
Monad (T'ai-chi), the fundamental principles of the 
Yang and the Yin, the Five Elements (water, fire, 
wood, metal, earth), the Eight Tri grams (Pa-kua), the 
Ten Stems (Kan) and twelve Branches (Chih), he 
twelve Ornaments of the official ceremonial robes, 
the Twenty-eight Stellar Mansions ad a great many 
more such symbols." 

The supreme quest of Freemasonry is not to 
develop a religion but to develop a Hand Maiden of 

R.W. Bro.charles White will be remembered in 
this Grand Jurisdiction because of the Funeral Service 
and the Memorial Service that we use. It was prepar- 
ed by him when he was Grand Chaplain and was 
approved by the Grand East. At the Annual 
Communication held in Toronto in July 1938 it was 


approved by Grand Lodge and since that time it has 
been recognized as the approved service. 

In his retirement he begin to study and research 
the history of Freemasonry in Canada. He discovered 
that Freemasonry had came to Canada as early as 
1757. If he had lived longer he would have no doubt 
written a history of Canadian Freemasonry. 

While summering in Niagara-on-the-Lake, he did 
some research on Freemasonry in the area and 
established a Masonic Museum at Niagara. 

William White did return, from time to time, to 
Norwood, the village where he had been raised. His 
niece recalls seeing him when he visited his brother. 
As she puts it, "He was returned home to Canada, 
for his own good, when things got too hot for him 
in China." In 1934 he officiated at he celebration of 
the ninetieth anniversary of Christ Church, where he 
had first preached. In 1952 he returned to perform 
the burial service of his brother who lies buried in 
the local cemetery on the hill behind the village 
where his parents are also buried. 

Charles White also served as a Chaplain overseas 
with the Canadian Expeditionary Forces during the 
First World War. 

William White was married twice. His first wife, 
Annie Rae died in 1934. He later married Daisy 
Masters who had been a missionary in China. From 
his first marriage there were two children, a son and 
a daughter. 

During the last two years of his life, William 
White was not well. He spent one day each week in 
bed and his doctor visited him twice a week. His 
friends wished to commemorate him by a bronze 
bust, which he hesitandy agreed to only ten days 
before his death. It now stands in a room dominated 
by colourful frescoes and ancient statues of the 


china he loved and served for over forty years. 

On Sunday January 24th, 1960, his journey came 
to an end and William White welcomed the next 
exciting adventure. He was eighty- six years of age. 

What did William C. White leave? 

What did he contribute to the life of the world? 

His interests had reached from the Eastern to 
the Western Hemispheres. 

Is it the beautiful artifacts from China deposit- 
ed in the Royal Ontario Museum? 

Is it the understanding that he created between 
the East and the West? 

Is the meaning and dedication that he gave to 
the Masonic Order? 

Is it his literary Work? 

His well worn Bible lay open on his night table. 
A verse written on an inserted page marked the 

All great is to believe the dream 
As we stand in youth by the starry stream 
But a greater thing is to fight life through 
And say at the end, "The dteam is true". 

It is hard to summarize the merits of so great 
a man as William Charles White. I believe it can be 
found in the following poem which was a favourite 
of his. It is by the Japanese Mystic Toyohiko Kagawa 
and was given to him by R.W.Bro. Charles Sankey 
whom we all know and hold in high esteem. The 
Bishop used it on many occasions especially at the 
ordination services for new Priests. 


"I cannot invent 

New things 

Like the airships 

Which sail 

On silver wings. 

But today 

A wonderful thought 

In the dawn was given 

And the stripes on my robe 

Shining from were 

Wear suddenly fair 

Bright with light 

Falling from heaven 

Gold and silver and bronze 

Lights from the windows of heaven. 

And the thought 

Was this 

That a secret plan 

Is hid in my hand 

That my hand is big, 


Because of this plan. 

That God 

Who dwells in my hand 

Knows this secret plan 

Of the things he will do for this world 

Using my hand" 


Bishop in Honan - a biography of William Charles 
White by Lewis C. Walmsley 

Grand Lodge Proceedings - 1938 

University Lodge No. 496 - R.W.Bro. Balfour Le 
Gresley, Historical Committee Chairman. 

Norwood - Then and Now 


Mrs. Rosie Beynon - a niece of William Charles 

R.W.Bro. Wilson McConnell - from his clippings from 
the Globe and Mail 

R.W.Bro. Charles A. Sankey - a personal friend of 
William Charles White 

The Papers of The Masonic Research Association - 
Volume I 



• ,:i 

The White residence at Norwood 

Rt. Rev. William C. White 

Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of Canada 
A.F. & A.M. in Ontario 



May 14, 1988 


R.W.Bro. John W. Auckland 


"William Charles White" 

THE FIRST REVIEW - was prepared by Miss Betty 
Kingston. She served as Bishop White's secretary 
librarian during his last five years at the Royal 
Ontario Museum. She later became librarian of the 
Museum's Chines Library, and still works part time 
in the Library of the Far Eastern Department. She 
had read Bro. Auckland's paper, and, as a supplement 
to it, has consented to add a few of her own personal 
recollections. We are grateful to Miss Kingston for 
allowing her contribution to be read in open lodge. 
Her observations are entitled, "Another View of 
Bishop White." This review was read in lodge by R.W. 
Bro. Balfour LeGresley. 

Gentlemen of The Heritage Lodge: 

My association with Bishop White goes back to 
January, 1943, when I started work in the library of 
the Far Eastern Department (at that time known as 
the East Asiatic Department) of the Royal Ontario 
Museum. The Bishop, who was then Curator of the 
Department, had confided to Dr. W.J. Dunlop, a great 
friend and fellow Mason, that he needed a secretary 
librarian, and had asked for his help in finding one. 
I was working for Dr. Dunlop in the Department of 
University extension, and was qualified in both 
capacities, and so I was sent over to be interviewed 
by the Bishop. I was with him until his retirement in 

The staff consisted of the Bishop, myself, and 


Francis Tseng, a young Chinese part-time research 
assistant in the library. Francis had been brought 
over by Bishop White to study theology at Trinity 
College, in the expectation that he would eventually 
succeed the Right Reverend Lindel Tsen, who had 
taken over from the Bishop upon his retirement as 
Bishop of Honan. (As others have pointed out, the 
Bishop always firmly believed that the Chinese 
Church should be under indigenous control, and he 
had seen to it that his successor should be a 
Chinese.) Francis did become Bishop of Honan, 
shortly before the Communist takeover. The Bishop 
received a letter from him, describing the entry of 
the revolutionary armies into the capital, Kaifeng, 
and incidentally his own presence of mind in the 
situation. It was written in a very affectionate tone, 
with no hint of the scathing denunciations that he 
later made under Communist pressure or influence. 

It was no ordinary library in which I was called 
upon to work. Books in European languages occupied 
a very small section, while most of the shelves were 
lined with the blue cases of the Mu Chinese Library, 
which Bishop White had obtained in China for the 
University and Museum. Each case, or "t'ao," was 
labelled by hand in Chinese calligraphy. The walls 
were lined with testimonials to Bishop White, includ- 
ing a beautiful lacquer plate emblazoned with an 
inscription which read, in Francis' rough translation, 
"good with men together." 

When I arrived, the Bishop was engaged in two 
projects, the completion of his three-volume work on 
the Chinese Jews, and the establishment of the 
School of Chinese Studies. 

The first brought him into contact with the 
Jewish community of Toronto, notably Dr. Sigmund 
Samuel, one of the co-donors of the library, and a 
great friend of the Bishop. Dr. Samuel visited his 
home in Fonthill, and frequently turned up in the 
library. I remember once seeing the two of them 


bent ecstatically over a fragile Chinese stem cup 
which the Bishop was cradling in his hands. On 
another occasion I overheard Dr. Samuel complaining 
that he hadn't been asked for any money lately. Of 
course the Bishop had a project on the tip of his 

The first students in the School of Chinese 
Studies included an artist, a philosopher, a world 
traveller, and others who were simply interested in 
the East, notably Mrs. Edgar Stone. (In appreciation 
of what the Bishop had done for her, she later 
founded the Bishop White Committee, to raise money 
for the support of the library and department.) 
Most of the students however were prospective 
missionaries, ranging from Plymouth Brethren to 
Roman Catholics. The greatest number were Pen- 
tecostals, who seemed to have great rapport with the 
Bishop, and he was invited to their graduation ex- 
ercises. He told us afterwards with some amusement 
that there had been quite a number of Hallelujahs, 
but he could find nothing objectionable from a 
theological point of view. 

Some writers have suggested that Bishop White 
had been only too glad to take on the trappings of 
power when he was elevated to high office. Doubtless 
he appreciated the value of pomp and ritual in his 
association with the Chinese Mandarins, to whom 
such things were significant. Doubtless he wore his 
most impressive regalia when he was invited to 
witness the Confucian rites in Peking. But I never 
found that he stood on ceremony. One morning he 
came in muttering with displeasure because he had to 
wear gaiters to some ecclesiastical gathering. Perhaps, 
after all, this was understandable (!), but on another 
occasion he passed around a letter that had amused 
him greatly. It was liberally ornamented with "Mt 
Lord" and other reverential phrases. A simple "Dear 
Bishop White" was all he required of his correspon- 


Perhaps I should close with a little story that 
the Bishop told about himself. He and his wife had 
been invited to an important function in London, 
England, perhaps a Royal garden party, as I rememb- 
er, but Mrs. White was in tears because her hat was 
much too shabby. The Bishop sized up the situation, 
went out and bought some ribbons and flowers, and 
retrimmed the hat to he complete satisfaction. A 
simple story - but it illustrates the resourcefulness 
that he could bring to any emergency, large or small. 
It shows, perhaps, why a comparative newcomer to 
China, with no prior knowledge of the language, 
could throw himself with such energy into the ad- 
ministration of famine relief for a province of sixty 
million people, as well as so many other undertakings 
for the welfare of the people of Honan. In spite of 
the quirks of character which others have been quick 
to point out, we can understand why a grateful 
officialdom found him "good with men together." 

Miss Betty Kingdom 

THE SECOND REVIEW - was prepared by R.W.Bro. 
Charles A. Sankey, P.D.D.G.M., Past Master of Perfec- 
tion Lodge, No. 616, Niagara District "A". 

This review was read in lodge by R.W.Bro. Ken 

I had the special privilege of friendship with 
Bishop White during his Fonthill days, and was his 
chauffeur and companion on several of his Masonic 
visits within the Niagara area. 

Bro. Auckland has separated William White's 
career into the components of Church, of Chinese 
Studies, and of Freemasonry. I must emphasize that 
one single personality was involved, with its main- 
spring being a sensitivity to the thoughts, the con- 
cerns of each person whom he met - a sensitivity 


that was extraordinary, and indeed unique. Without 
any sacrifice of his individuality he naturally estab- 
lished an "at-one-ness." He intuitively knew your 
feelings, was aware of your oudook and objectives, 
recognized and was sympathetic to your problems, 
laughed with you, cried with you, and supported you. 
This sensitivity was also unique in* that it was never 
directed to self-interest, nor from an intimidating 
self-sacrifice. William White was capable of great 
self-sacrifice, but was unaware that it was self-sac- 
rifice. You were yourself, and he was himself. He 
knew that, and you knew that. For a time shared the 
same path in the same direction. The company was 
supportive and helpful, cooperative and understanding, 
stimulating and delightful. 

This is why he really understood the Chinese as 
few Westeners have ever done, and why the Chinese 
understood him and liked him and loved him. This is 
why he wore a queue on first going to China. It was 
not a put-on. It was genuine. This was why he was 
able to find, to obtain, and to export such a fabulous 
collection of Chinese things. His Chinese friends 
knew that he loved their work and respected it. I 
would believe that it was also a significant part of 
the reason why, in recent years, the Chinese have 
come to accept the R.O.M., his museum, as a fully 
acceptable temporary resting place for other parts of 
their priceless heritage. 

William White went to China as a missionary, 
and later as a Bishop. His sensitivity was an integral 
part of his religion. I have been told that he 
announced, before his consecration as Bishop, that he 
would only undertake the office until he had a 
diocese manned by Chinese priests, and Chinese 
capable of taking over from him. He had no thought 
of imposing an alien religion. His Christianity, the 
raison d' etre of his life, was not based on dogmat- 
ism, but on carrying the knowledge of the person of 
the Christ to all people, to each in his or her own 
place and language and time. Christianity was, to 


him, beyond place and within time, beyond race and 

within humanity. It was not a destruction of the old, 

but a revivification, resurrection of all that was 
good, and a building, never by destroying. 

That Freemasonry should appeal to him is 
obvious, and he understood Freemasonry as few of us 
do. Ritual was attractive, but only as a means to an 
end, a contributor to beauty, a constructive and 
constructing tool, nothing more and nothing less. He 
loved the universality of Masonry, its function as a 
builder. He was himself a master builder, and the 
Craft gave him friends and brethren of like minds, 
with whom he shared his unique skills and his genuine 
affection for all men of good will. 

Perhaps I may be permitted to tell a story. I 
was at the Bishop's home in Fonthill, and was talking 
about my first visit to Chinatown in Vancouver, 
when I had an hour or so of free time between 
arriving by boat from Powell River and going to the 
airport to fly to Toronto on one of the old T.C.A. 
North Stars. I passed a large grocery store which 
had several jars of preserved ginger in its window. 
My wife and I are very fond of preserved ginger, 
and we had had very little since the beginning of 
the war. When I entered the store I was surprised at 
being confronted by a young zoot- suited Chinese, 
who said rather rudely, "Want somet'ing?" My defence 
mechanism under such circumstances makes me very 
polite, grossly over-polite. I said, "Yes, thank you 
very much. I saw some good preserved ginger in your 
window, and would like to take some home when I 
fly to the East later today." He said, "Want little jar, 
big jar?" I said, "Would you tell me, please, how 
much they are?" A minute or so later, when I had 
asked for a large jar, he called something in Chinese 
to the rear of the store. I do not know a word of 
Chinese, but I knew (don't ask me how) that he had 
asked the amount of the sales tax. So I just said 
quietly, "It's eighteen cents." I'll never forget the 
change in the young man's face. He said, "Thank you 


very much, sir." As I left the store two elderly 
gentlemen in Chinese costume appeared from nowhere, 
wished me a pleasant trip, and one of them opened 
the door for me. When I had finished telling him 
this, the Bishop laughed so vigorously that it brought 
on a coughing spell, and both his wife and I were 
worried. Then he told me, "You have no idea, Charlie, 
how perfect your conduct was from a Chinese stand- 
point. You established by irrefutable inference that 
you were a scholar and a gentleman who understood 
Chinese. You did not say a word in Chinese, which 
would have caused more loss of face to the young 
man, and you also implied that you knew he was a 
young boor, but that you were above such trivia, and 
simply ignored it. And don't think that he didn't 
catch hell after you left!" (Incidentally, it was the 
nicest ginger in the richest syrup that I have ever 

Bro. Auckland has not attempted any listing of 
Bishop White's published works, or a critique of his 
scholarship. Perhaps it is better that way. From the 
standpoint of The Heritage Lodge, the important 
thing about William White was the man himself. To 
the extent that that has been realized, the effort 
has been worth while. 

Charles A. Sankey 

THE THIRD REVIEW - was prepared by R.W.Bro. 
Wallace McLeod, P.G.S.W., Past Master of Mizpah 
Lodge, No. 572, Toronto District 7. This review was 
read in lodge by V.W.Bro. Allan Hogg. 

Worshipful Master and Brethren: 

A few years ago, when I spoke to the brethren 
about "Preparing a Paper for Presentation in the 
Heritage Lodge," I ventured to suggest that biograph- 


ies could provide suitable subject matter; and among 
several specific examples of individual Masons who 
might repay further study, I added that "it would 
mai:e a great paper to summarize Walmsley's book 
and to find out about White's Masonic career" 
(Proceedings, volume 7, page 10). This is basically 
what Bro. Auckland has done. There is a particular 
appropriateness in his choice of subject, because 
both he and the Bishop have resided in Norwood 
(population in 1986, 1265) -- though to be sure a 
century apart. 

Of course, one would not want to overwhelm 
the talk with a flood of trivial detail, but it might 
have been useful to mention several other recent 
studies that look at Bishop White's life and works. 
Miss Betty Kingston, the former Librarian of the 
Chinese Library in the Royal Ontario Museum (and 
the contributor of the first review) refers me to 
Alvyn J. Austin, Saving China: Canadian Missionaries 
in the Middle Kingdom 1888-1959 (Toronto, 1986), 
especially pages 129-17, 222-226, and 296-298; to 
Lovat Dickson, The Museum Makers: The Story of 
the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto, 1986), pp. 7-87: 
"Bishop as Archaeologist;" and to Charles Taylor, Sic 
Journeys: A Canadian Pattern (Toronto, 1977), pp. 
41-72: "Bishop William White." She also mentions a 
recent book by Peter Stursberg, which I have not 
yet managed to track down. 

Let me just add a single detail that has turned 
up in a quick glance at one of these publications. 
Sometimes it is interesting to see what other notable 
Masons may have had dealings with this or that 
brother in the profane world. Bro. Auckland duly 
acknowledges Bishop White's Masonic connection with 
W.J. Dunlop; indeed, both men were Past Masters of 
University Lodge, No. 496; and miss Kingston notes 
that they were close personal friends as well. One 
might have referred to another, less amicable, 
association. Bishop White had a reputation for being 
autocratic in his work at the Museum. The reputation 


was probably not undeserved; nor was it altogether 
unexpected, because for twenty-five years he had 
held high office in the ecclesiastical hierachy, with 
jurisdiction over an immense diocese. Nor was his 
attitude necessarily wrong; the academic world 
(unlike Freemasonry) is not designed to be democratic. 
Those who know things have more prestige than 
those who don't. But there was apparently a certain 
amount of friction with his subordinates. In 1947 the 
Museum chose a new Director, Gerard Brett, a 
brilliant young archaeologist from the textile depart- 
ment of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. 
Before Brett would accept the appointment he came 
to Toronto to look things over, and on his return he 
wrote back, setting out several conditions that had 
to be met before he could accept. "Among other 
assurances Brett asked for was that Bishop White 
would be retired before he took up his office. He 
had heard enough about the Bishop to know that he 
tended to dominate the scene and would not take 
kindly to having a younger man over him" (Lovat 
Dickson, pages 103-104). He does not report that the 
new director was a Freemason as well. Gerard Brett 
(who lived 1915-1968) had been initiated in England, 
in the Apollo University Lodge, No. 357, in 1934; he 
served as Master of Felix Lodge, No. 1494, in 1947; 
he became a full member of the premier lodge of 
research, Quatuor Coronati, No. 2076, in 1951, and 
was Prestonian lecturer in 1961 (see the memorial 
notice by his Brother, Sir Lionel Brett, in AQC 81, 
1968, 253). He affiliated with Ashlar Lodge, No. 247, 
Toronto, on March 23, 1948 (for this information I 
thank the office of the Grand Secretary). We do not 
know if he ever talked Masonry with the Bishop, but 
at the first glance it hardly seems likely. 

One last point I touch on with diffidence, only 
because it is much on my mind at this time of the 
year. When we are writing an essay, particularly on 
a historical topic, it is awfully easy to copy detailed 
notes from our source-book, and then to transcribe 
them unaltered into our paper. The problem is that 


these words belong to somebody else, and to take 
them over, unless we enclose them within quotation 
marks, may leave us open to the charge of plagiar- 
ism, which can be a serious business at a university. 
In Bro. Auckland's paper we fmd more than one 
striking phrase borrowed verbatim from Walmsley's 
book; for example, the house "stands like a sentinel 
guarding the western entrance" (Walmsley, page 21; 
"he believed that if he kept God's will, nothing could 
prevail against him" (page 8); the civilization of 
China was "etched on a background of moral philos- 
ophy and symbolic wealth" (page 190); and so on. I 
mention this with no desire to embarrass Bro. 
Auckland, but simply to point out the danger. We 
can easily see how it happens, with no intent to 
deceive. It follows that we should all make a con- 
scious effort to avoid any hint of impropriety, by 
expressing the ideas in our own words. 

I should like to thank Bro. Auckland for telling 
us about this astonishing Mason, who left his mark 
in so many fields. 

Wallace E. McLeod. 



From: W. Bro. (E.Comp.) C.N. Batham, 
Quator Coronati Lodge No. 2076 

Cyril is a frequent correspondent and he writes: 
"Recently I received a copy of Volume 9 of the 
Proceedings of The Heritage Lodge, which is what 
prompted this letter. It is up to its usual high stan- 
dard and I only wish that all masonic publications 
were on the same level. 

On page 60 there is a reference to a book 
(presumably) by Professor Durant. I should be grate- 
ful if the author, Bro. The Hon. John R. Matheson, 
would let me know the title of the book and the 
name and address of the publishers. 

Also, on page 141, there is a quotation from a 
book by Wor. Bro. F. H. Smyth. The quotation is 
correct, but unfortunately there was an error in the 
book that went unnoticed at proof-reading stage. The 
degree of Heredom of Kilwinning is conferred in a 
Provincial Grand Chapter and that of Knight of the 
Rosy Cross in a Provincial Grand Lodge. This will be 
amended when the book is reprinted. 

From: W. Bro. Allan J. Cohoe 

Charter Member The Heritage Lodge No. 730 

Al's special interest is the early Lodges under 
the G.R.I. Last year he visited the archives of the 
Grand Lodge of Ireland in Dublin. They have recently 
appointed a trained archivist who is making excellent 
progress in organizing the records of that Masonic 
Jurisdiction. But it will be ten years before they can 
quickly produce answers to queries about their past 

Al continues as follows "One of the suggestions 
coming out of my visit was that we (The Heritage 


Lodge) endeavour to collect together any extant 
Letter Books and/or Minute books which might be in 
the hands of our Grand Lodge Library or successor 
Grand Lodge of Canada Lodges and have them micro- 
filmed for the Irish archives. They have none that 
were returned. 

Incidently since my paper on Irish Lodges in 
Ontario, our Proceedings Vol 5, No. 4, I have disco- 
vered that the Letter Book of Leinster Lodge No. 
283 G.R.I, Kingston, from January 1846 to January 
1850 had been used as the first Minute Book of our 
own Cataragui Lodge No. 92. There could be other 
similar cases. 

I have consulted with Queen's University 
Archives where we can have safe temporary storage 
and arrange microfilming. I do not wish to burden 
Heritage Lodge members with heavy work loads and 
am prepared to manage the matter from here but, 
feel that an appeal from The Heritage Lodge might 
be more effective and certainly would establish 
longer term attention than if I myself do it 

This is indeed a challenging project and 
certainly one that conforms to the aims and objec- 
tives of our Lodge. Any mason who is interested in 
assisting in the program can obtain further informa- 
tion from the Editor. I will send you a list of the 
Irish Civilian Masonic Lodges in Canada supplied by 
the Dublin Archivist, Bro. C.G. Horton. It includes 
lodges formerly existing in Brantford, Binbrook, 
Minden, Oxford, Hamilton, Hawesbury, London, St. 
Thomas, Dunnville, Stratford, and others not iden- 
tified by a place in Ontario. 



The following names of deceased Brethren have 
come to our attention during the past year. Some 
dates of passing were not known. 


St. Catherines 

Maple Leaf Lodge No. 103 

(Not notified of date of death) 



Patterson Lodge No. 265 

Died January 8, 1988 



Mountain Lodge No. 221 

Died January 12, 1987. 



St. Paul Lodge No. 601 

Died February, 1988. 



Salem Lodge No. 368 

(Not advised of date of death) 



Ionic Lodge No. 229 

(Not advised of date of death) 



General Mercer Lodge No. 548 

Died February 16, 1988 




Sudbury Lodge No. 658 

Died January 15, 1988 

We cherish their memories in our hearts and extend 
our Fraternal sympathy to their families 

Farewell, dear voyageur, 'twill not be long, 
Your work is done - now may peace rest with thee. 
Your kindly thoughts and deeds, they will live on 
This is not death - 'tis immortality.